Phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) and Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) signaling are aberrantly activated in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells. Constitutively activated AKT and FLT3 regulate leukemia cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the effects of the novel multiple kinase inhibitor KP372-1 on the survival of AML cell lines and primary AML samples. KP372-1 directly inhibited the kinase activity of AKT, PDK1, and FLT3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot analysis indicated that KP372-1 decreased the phosphorylation of AKT on both Ser473 and Thr308; abrogated the phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase, BAD, and Foxo3a via PI3K/AKT signaling; and down-regulated expression of PIM-1 through direct inhibition of FLT3. Treatment of AML cell lines with KP372-1 resulted in rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and stimulation of oxygen consumption, followed by mitochondrial depolarization, caspase activation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. KP372-1 induced pronounced apoptosis in AML cell lines and primary samples irrespective of their FLT3 status, but not in normal CD34+ cells. Moreover, KP372-1 markedly decreased the colony-forming ability of primary AML samples (IC 50 < 200 nmol/L) with minimal cytotoxic effects on normal progenitor cells. Taken together, our results show that the simultaneous inhibition of critical prosurvival kinases by KP372-1 leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis of AML but not normal hematopoietic progenitor cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research