PURPOSE. Administration of voriconazole, an antifungal triazole, causes transient visual disturbances in patients and attenuates the b-wave of the ERG. We sought to identify the retinal target of voriconazole underlying the effect on the ERG b-wave. METHODS. Electroretinograms were recorded from mice before and after intraperitoneal injection of voriconazole. The effect of voriconazole on ON-bipolar cells was tested by patchclamp recordings of ON-bipolar cells in mouse retinal slices. Effects of voriconazole on mGluR6 and TRPM3 were assessed by patch-clamp recordings of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HEK293 cells transfected with either TRPM3 or mGluR6 plus Kir3.1/Kir3.4. RESULTS. Voriconazole attenuated the ERG b-wave in mice, and inhibited ON-bipolar cell responses evoked by application of CPPG, an mGluR6 antagonist, onto the ON-bipolar cell dendrites, indicating that voriconazole blocks a step in the mGluR6-TRPM1 signal transduction pathway. Voriconazole almost completely blocked capsaicin-activated currents in ON-bipolar cells, which have been attributed to direct activation of the TRPM1 cation channel. Furthermore, application of voriconazole to CHO cells expressing TRPM3, a closely related channel to TRPM1, showed that voriconazole reversibly blocked pregnenolone sulfate–stimulated TRPM3 currents in transfected cells. In contrast, voriconazole only slightly inhibited mGluR6-mediated activation of G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) currents in cotransfected cells, suggesting that mGluR6 is not the primary target of voriconazole in ON-bipolar cells. CONCLUSIONS. The visual disturbances associated with voriconazole are likely due to block of TRPM1 channels in retinal ON-bipolar cells. Other neurological effects of voriconazole may be due to block of TRPM3 channels expressed in the brain.
- Bipolar cell
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sensory Systems
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience