OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of universal screening for hepatitis B immunity and vaccination among pregnant women in the United States. METHODS: We designed a decision-analytic model to evaluate the outcomes, costs, and cost effectiveness associated with universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunity screening in pregnancy with vaccination of susceptible individuals compared with no screening. A theoretical cohort of 3.6 million women, the approximate number of annual live births in the United States, was used. Outcomes included cases of HBV, hepatocellular carcinoma, decompensated cirrhosis, liver transplant and death, in addition to cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Model inputs were derived from the literature, and the willingness-to-pay threshold was $50,000 per QALY. Univariate sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulation models were performed to evaluate the robustness of the results. RESULTS: In a theoretical cohort of 3.6 million women, universal HBV immunity screening and vaccination resulted in 1,702 fewer cases of HBV, seven fewer cases of decompensated cirrhosis, four fewer liver transplants, and 11 fewer deaths over the life expectancy of a woman after pregnancy. Universal screening and vaccination were found to be cost effective, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1,890 per QALY. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated the model was robust even when the prevalence of HBV immunity was high and the annual risk of HBV acquisition low. CONCLUSION: Among pregnant women in the United States, universal HBV immunity screening and vaccination of susceptible persons is cost effective compared with not routinely screening and vaccinating.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology