Twenty-year outcome for individuals with autism and average or near-average cognitive abilities

Megan A. Farley, William M. McMahon, Eric Fombonne, William R. Jenson, Judith Miller, Michael Gardner, Heidi Block, Carmen B. Pingree, Edward R. Ritvo, Riva Arielle Ritvo, Hilary Coon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

210 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Previous studies found substantial variability in adult outcome for people with autism whose cognitive functioning was within the near-average and average ranges. This study examined adult outcome for 41 such individuals (38 men and 3 women) originally identified through an epidemiological survey of autism in Utah. Mean age at the time of their previous cognitive assessment was 7.2 years (SD = 4.1, range = 3.1-25.9 years) and at follow-up was 32.5 years (SD = 5.7 years, range = 22.3-46.4 years). Outcome measures included standardized assessments of diagnostic status, cognitive ability, and adaptive behavior. Additional information collected concerned demographic variables, indicators of independence, social relationships, medical and psychiatric conditions, and social service use. Outcomes for this sample were better than outcomes described in previous work on individuals with similar cognitive functioning. For example, half of the participants were rated as "Very Good" or "Good" on a global outcome measure. As in previous studies, there was considerable variability in measured cognitive ability over time. Over half of the sample had large gains or losses of cognitive ability of greater than 1 standard deviation. Cognitive gain was associated with better outcome, as was better adaptive functioning. While all participants had baseline IQs in the nonimpaired range, there was limited evidence to support the use of other early childhood variables to predict adult outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)109-118
Number of pages10
JournalAutism Research
Volume2
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Aptitude
Autistic Disorder
Psychiatric Social Work
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Psychological Adaptation
Demography

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Autism
  • Longitudinal
  • Outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

Farley, M. A., McMahon, W. M., Fombonne, E., Jenson, W. R., Miller, J., Gardner, M., ... Coon, H. (2009). Twenty-year outcome for individuals with autism and average or near-average cognitive abilities. Autism Research, 2(2), 109-118. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.69

Twenty-year outcome for individuals with autism and average or near-average cognitive abilities. / Farley, Megan A.; McMahon, William M.; Fombonne, Eric; Jenson, William R.; Miller, Judith; Gardner, Michael; Block, Heidi; Pingree, Carmen B.; Ritvo, Edward R.; Ritvo, Riva Arielle; Coon, Hilary.

In: Autism Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, 04.2009, p. 109-118.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Farley, MA, McMahon, WM, Fombonne, E, Jenson, WR, Miller, J, Gardner, M, Block, H, Pingree, CB, Ritvo, ER, Ritvo, RA & Coon, H 2009, 'Twenty-year outcome for individuals with autism and average or near-average cognitive abilities', Autism Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 109-118. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.69
Farley, Megan A. ; McMahon, William M. ; Fombonne, Eric ; Jenson, William R. ; Miller, Judith ; Gardner, Michael ; Block, Heidi ; Pingree, Carmen B. ; Ritvo, Edward R. ; Ritvo, Riva Arielle ; Coon, Hilary. / Twenty-year outcome for individuals with autism and average or near-average cognitive abilities. In: Autism Research. 2009 ; Vol. 2, No. 2. pp. 109-118.
@article{862f49a67cbc4f2ebe101ab3137c23e4,
title = "Twenty-year outcome for individuals with autism and average or near-average cognitive abilities",
abstract = "Previous studies found substantial variability in adult outcome for people with autism whose cognitive functioning was within the near-average and average ranges. This study examined adult outcome for 41 such individuals (38 men and 3 women) originally identified through an epidemiological survey of autism in Utah. Mean age at the time of their previous cognitive assessment was 7.2 years (SD = 4.1, range = 3.1-25.9 years) and at follow-up was 32.5 years (SD = 5.7 years, range = 22.3-46.4 years). Outcome measures included standardized assessments of diagnostic status, cognitive ability, and adaptive behavior. Additional information collected concerned demographic variables, indicators of independence, social relationships, medical and psychiatric conditions, and social service use. Outcomes for this sample were better than outcomes described in previous work on individuals with similar cognitive functioning. For example, half of the participants were rated as {"}Very Good{"} or {"}Good{"} on a global outcome measure. As in previous studies, there was considerable variability in measured cognitive ability over time. Over half of the sample had large gains or losses of cognitive ability of greater than 1 standard deviation. Cognitive gain was associated with better outcome, as was better adaptive functioning. While all participants had baseline IQs in the nonimpaired range, there was limited evidence to support the use of other early childhood variables to predict adult outcome.",
keywords = "Adult, Autism, Longitudinal, Outcome",
author = "Farley, {Megan A.} and McMahon, {William M.} and Eric Fombonne and Jenson, {William R.} and Judith Miller and Michael Gardner and Heidi Block and Pingree, {Carmen B.} and Ritvo, {Edward R.} and Ritvo, {Riva Arielle} and Hilary Coon",
year = "2009",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1002/aur.69",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "2",
pages = "109--118",
journal = "Autism Research",
issn = "1939-3806",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Twenty-year outcome for individuals with autism and average or near-average cognitive abilities

AU - Farley, Megan A.

AU - McMahon, William M.

AU - Fombonne, Eric

AU - Jenson, William R.

AU - Miller, Judith

AU - Gardner, Michael

AU - Block, Heidi

AU - Pingree, Carmen B.

AU - Ritvo, Edward R.

AU - Ritvo, Riva Arielle

AU - Coon, Hilary

PY - 2009/4

Y1 - 2009/4

N2 - Previous studies found substantial variability in adult outcome for people with autism whose cognitive functioning was within the near-average and average ranges. This study examined adult outcome for 41 such individuals (38 men and 3 women) originally identified through an epidemiological survey of autism in Utah. Mean age at the time of their previous cognitive assessment was 7.2 years (SD = 4.1, range = 3.1-25.9 years) and at follow-up was 32.5 years (SD = 5.7 years, range = 22.3-46.4 years). Outcome measures included standardized assessments of diagnostic status, cognitive ability, and adaptive behavior. Additional information collected concerned demographic variables, indicators of independence, social relationships, medical and psychiatric conditions, and social service use. Outcomes for this sample were better than outcomes described in previous work on individuals with similar cognitive functioning. For example, half of the participants were rated as "Very Good" or "Good" on a global outcome measure. As in previous studies, there was considerable variability in measured cognitive ability over time. Over half of the sample had large gains or losses of cognitive ability of greater than 1 standard deviation. Cognitive gain was associated with better outcome, as was better adaptive functioning. While all participants had baseline IQs in the nonimpaired range, there was limited evidence to support the use of other early childhood variables to predict adult outcome.

AB - Previous studies found substantial variability in adult outcome for people with autism whose cognitive functioning was within the near-average and average ranges. This study examined adult outcome for 41 such individuals (38 men and 3 women) originally identified through an epidemiological survey of autism in Utah. Mean age at the time of their previous cognitive assessment was 7.2 years (SD = 4.1, range = 3.1-25.9 years) and at follow-up was 32.5 years (SD = 5.7 years, range = 22.3-46.4 years). Outcome measures included standardized assessments of diagnostic status, cognitive ability, and adaptive behavior. Additional information collected concerned demographic variables, indicators of independence, social relationships, medical and psychiatric conditions, and social service use. Outcomes for this sample were better than outcomes described in previous work on individuals with similar cognitive functioning. For example, half of the participants were rated as "Very Good" or "Good" on a global outcome measure. As in previous studies, there was considerable variability in measured cognitive ability over time. Over half of the sample had large gains or losses of cognitive ability of greater than 1 standard deviation. Cognitive gain was associated with better outcome, as was better adaptive functioning. While all participants had baseline IQs in the nonimpaired range, there was limited evidence to support the use of other early childhood variables to predict adult outcome.

KW - Adult

KW - Autism

KW - Longitudinal

KW - Outcome

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=66349117041&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=66349117041&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/aur.69

DO - 10.1002/aur.69

M3 - Article

C2 - 19455645

AN - SCOPUS:66349117041

VL - 2

SP - 109

EP - 118

JO - Autism Research

JF - Autism Research

SN - 1939-3806

IS - 2

ER -