Toxicity of imidazolium- and pyridinium-based ionic liquids and the co-metabolic degradation of N-ethylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

C. Zhang, S. V. Malhotra, A. J. Francis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations

Abstract

We examined the effects of the ionic liquids (ILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6], N-ethylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [EtPy][BF4], and N-ethylpyridinium trifluoroacetate [EtPy][CF3COO] on Pseudomonas fluorescens, a ubiquitous soil bacterium. In the presence of 0.5- and 1% of [BMIM][PF6] or [EtPy][CF3COO] the growth of bacteria was inhibited, whereas exposing them to 1% [EtPy][BF4] increased the lag period wherein bacteria adapt to growth conditions before continuing to grow. However, at higher concentrations (5% and 10%), no growth was observed. The inhibitory effects were evident by a decrease in the optical density of the culture, a decline in the consumption of the carbon source, citric acid, and a change in the size of the bacterium. At concentrations below 1%, [EtPy][BF4] was metabolized by P. fluorescens in the presence of citric acid. Oxidation of the side alkyl-chain of [EtPy][BF4] caused the accumulation of N-hydroxylethylpyridinium and pyridinium as major degradation products.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1690-1695
Number of pages6
JournalChemosphere
Volume82
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2011
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bacteria
  • Biodegradation
  • Co-metabolism
  • Ionic liquids
  • Toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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