Clinicians, including hematologists, are more frequently encountering transgender individuals in practice; however, most lack training on the management and complications of transgender medicine. Hormonal therapy forms the backbone of medical interventions for patients undergoing gender transition. While supplementing an individual's intrinsic sex hormone is associated with a variety of hematologic complications including increased rates of venous thrombosis, cardiovascular events, erthyrocytosis, and malignancy, the risks of supplementing with opposing sex hormones are not well understood. Data on the hematologic complications of these therapies are accumulating but remain limited, and clinicians have little experience with their management. This review highlights the current interventions available in transgender medicine and related potential hematologic complications, and it suggests simple, evidence-based management going forward. Am. J. Hematol. 92:204–208, 2017.
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