Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the distal colon and rectum are also known as hindgut carcinoids based on their common embryologic derivation. Their annual incidence in the United States is rising, primarily as a result of increased incidental detection. Symptoms of rectal NETs include hematochezia, pain, and change in bowel habits. Most rectal NETs are small, submucosal in location, and associated with a very low malignant potential. Tumors larger than 2 cm or those invading the muscularis propria are associated with a significantly higher risk of metastatic spread. Colonic NETs proximal to the rectum are rarer and tend to behave more aggressively. The incidence of rectal NETs in African Americans and Asians is substantially higher than in Caucasians. Colorectal NETs are generally not associated with a hormonal syndrome such as flushing or diarrhea. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended in diagnosing and managing hindgut NETs.
- neuroendocrine carcinoma
- neuroendocrine tumors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism