The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence

Anita Cservenka, Madison L. Stroup, Amit Etkin, Bonnie Nagel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-150
Number of pages16
JournalBrain and Cognition
Volume99
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2015

Fingerprint

Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Parietal Lobe
Emotions
Brain
Cognition
Genetic Epistasis
Gonadal Hormones
Corpus Striatum
Occipital Lobe
Facial Expression
Age Factors
Psychopathology
Sex Characteristics
Psychiatry
Testosterone
Estradiol
Steroids
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Conflict (Psychology)
Emotion

Keywords

  • Adolescence
  • Age
  • FMRI
  • Hormones
  • Puberty
  • Sex differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence. / Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L.; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie.

In: Brain and Cognition, Vol. 99, 01.10.2015, p. 135-150.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cservenka, Anita ; Stroup, Madison L. ; Etkin, Amit ; Nagel, Bonnie. / The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence. In: Brain and Cognition. 2015 ; Vol. 99. pp. 135-150.
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