The clinical impact of coronavirus infection in patients with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

Morgan Hakki, Rogan M. Rattray, Richard Press

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7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Compared to other respiratory viruses, relatively little is known about the clinical impact of coronavirus (CoV) infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) or in patients with hematologic malignancies. Objectives: To characterize the role of CoV in respiratory tract infections among HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients. Study design: We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of CoV infection documented by polymerase chain reaction, (PCR)-based testing on nasopharyngeal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples between June 2010 and 2013. Cases of CoV infection occurring in HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients were identified and the clinical characteristics of these cases were compared to other respiratory viruses. Results: CoV was identified in 2.6% (n=43) of all samples analyzed (n=1661) and in 6.8% of all samples testing positive for a respiratory virus (n=631). 33 of 38 (86.8%) of patients in whom CoV was identified were HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients. Among these patients, CoV was detected in 9.7% of unique infection episodes, with only rhinovirus/enterovirus (RhV/EnV) infection being more common. Group I CoV subtypes accounted for 76.3% of cases, and 57% of infections were diagnosed between December and March. CoV infection was associated with upper respiratory tract symptoms in most patients, similar to other respiratory viruses. Possible and proven lower respiratory tract disease was less common compared to other respiratory viruses except RhV/EnV. Conclusions: CoV is frequently detected in HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients in whom suspicion for a respiratory viral infection exists, but is less likely to progress to lower respiratory tract disease than most other respiratory viruses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Clinical Virology
Volume68
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

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Coronavirus Infections
Hematologic Neoplasms
Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Coronavirus
Transplants
Viruses
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Respiratory Tract Infections
Enterovirus Infections
Rhinovirus
Transplant Recipients
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Virus Diseases
Infection
Respiratory System
Polymerase Chain Reaction

Keywords

  • Coronavirus
  • Hematologic malignancy
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplant
  • Respiratory virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

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title = "The clinical impact of coronavirus infection in patients with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients",
abstract = "Background: Compared to other respiratory viruses, relatively little is known about the clinical impact of coronavirus (CoV) infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) or in patients with hematologic malignancies. Objectives: To characterize the role of CoV in respiratory tract infections among HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients. Study design: We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of CoV infection documented by polymerase chain reaction, (PCR)-based testing on nasopharyngeal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples between June 2010 and 2013. Cases of CoV infection occurring in HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients were identified and the clinical characteristics of these cases were compared to other respiratory viruses. Results: CoV was identified in 2.6{\%} (n=43) of all samples analyzed (n=1661) and in 6.8{\%} of all samples testing positive for a respiratory virus (n=631). 33 of 38 (86.8{\%}) of patients in whom CoV was identified were HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients. Among these patients, CoV was detected in 9.7{\%} of unique infection episodes, with only rhinovirus/enterovirus (RhV/EnV) infection being more common. Group I CoV subtypes accounted for 76.3{\%} of cases, and 57{\%} of infections were diagnosed between December and March. CoV infection was associated with upper respiratory tract symptoms in most patients, similar to other respiratory viruses. Possible and proven lower respiratory tract disease was less common compared to other respiratory viruses except RhV/EnV. Conclusions: CoV is frequently detected in HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients in whom suspicion for a respiratory viral infection exists, but is less likely to progress to lower respiratory tract disease than most other respiratory viruses.",
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author = "Morgan Hakki and Rattray, {Rogan M.} and Richard Press",
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N2 - Background: Compared to other respiratory viruses, relatively little is known about the clinical impact of coronavirus (CoV) infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) or in patients with hematologic malignancies. Objectives: To characterize the role of CoV in respiratory tract infections among HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients. Study design: We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of CoV infection documented by polymerase chain reaction, (PCR)-based testing on nasopharyngeal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples between June 2010 and 2013. Cases of CoV infection occurring in HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients were identified and the clinical characteristics of these cases were compared to other respiratory viruses. Results: CoV was identified in 2.6% (n=43) of all samples analyzed (n=1661) and in 6.8% of all samples testing positive for a respiratory virus (n=631). 33 of 38 (86.8%) of patients in whom CoV was identified were HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients. Among these patients, CoV was detected in 9.7% of unique infection episodes, with only rhinovirus/enterovirus (RhV/EnV) infection being more common. Group I CoV subtypes accounted for 76.3% of cases, and 57% of infections were diagnosed between December and March. CoV infection was associated with upper respiratory tract symptoms in most patients, similar to other respiratory viruses. Possible and proven lower respiratory tract disease was less common compared to other respiratory viruses except RhV/EnV. Conclusions: CoV is frequently detected in HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients in whom suspicion for a respiratory viral infection exists, but is less likely to progress to lower respiratory tract disease than most other respiratory viruses.

AB - Background: Compared to other respiratory viruses, relatively little is known about the clinical impact of coronavirus (CoV) infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) or in patients with hematologic malignancies. Objectives: To characterize the role of CoV in respiratory tract infections among HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients. Study design: We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of CoV infection documented by polymerase chain reaction, (PCR)-based testing on nasopharyngeal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples between June 2010 and 2013. Cases of CoV infection occurring in HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients were identified and the clinical characteristics of these cases were compared to other respiratory viruses. Results: CoV was identified in 2.6% (n=43) of all samples analyzed (n=1661) and in 6.8% of all samples testing positive for a respiratory virus (n=631). 33 of 38 (86.8%) of patients in whom CoV was identified were HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients. Among these patients, CoV was detected in 9.7% of unique infection episodes, with only rhinovirus/enterovirus (RhV/EnV) infection being more common. Group I CoV subtypes accounted for 76.3% of cases, and 57% of infections were diagnosed between December and March. CoV infection was associated with upper respiratory tract symptoms in most patients, similar to other respiratory viruses. Possible and proven lower respiratory tract disease was less common compared to other respiratory viruses except RhV/EnV. Conclusions: CoV is frequently detected in HSCT and hematologic malignancy patients in whom suspicion for a respiratory viral infection exists, but is less likely to progress to lower respiratory tract disease than most other respiratory viruses.

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KW - Respiratory virus

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