The association between gestational weight gain and risk of stillbirth: A population-based cohort study

Ruofan Yao, Bo Y. Park, Sarah E. Foster, Aaron Caughey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To estimate the risk of stillbirth associated with excessive and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy. Methods: Retrospective cohort study using the Texas vital records database between 2006 and 2011, with 2,230,310 births (5502 stillbirths) was included for analysis. Pregnancies were categorized as adequate weight gain, excessive weight gain, inadequate weight gain, or weight loss based on the Institute of Medicine 2009 recommendations. Hazard ratios (HRs) for stillbirth were estimated for each gestational weight-gain stratum using adequate weight gain as the comparison group. The analysis was performed separately for each body mass index (BMI) class. Results: Both inadequate weight gain and weight loss were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth for all BMI classes except the morbidly obese group. Highest risk was seen in weight-loss groups after 36 completed weeks (normal weight: HR = 18.85 [8.25-43.09]; overweight: HR = 5.87 [2.99-11.55]; obese: HR = 3.44 [2.34-5.05]). Weight loss was associated with reduced stillbirth risk in morbidly obese women between 24 and 28 weeks (HR = 0.56 [0.34-0.95]). Excess weight gain was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth among obese and morbidly obese women, with highest risk after 36 completed weeks (obese: HR = 2.00 [1.55-2.58]; morbidly obese: HR = 3.16 [2.17-4.62]). In contrast, excess weight gain was associated with reduced risk of stillbirth in normal-weight women between 24 and 28 weeks (HR = 0.57 [0.44-0.70]) and in overweight women between 29 and 33 weeks (HR = 0.62 [0.45-0.85]). Analysis for the underweight group was limited by sample size. Both excessive weight gain and inadequate weight gain were not associated with stillbirth in this group. Conclusions: Stillbirth risk increased with inadequate weight gain and weight loss in all BMI classes except the morbidly obese group, where weight demonstrated a protective effect. Conversely, excessive weight gain was associated with higher risk of stillbirth among obese and morbidly obese women but was protective against stillbirth in lower weight women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAnnals of Epidemiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2017

Fingerprint

Stillbirth
Weight Gain
Cohort Studies
Population
Weight Loss
Weights and Measures
Body Mass Index
Pregnancy
National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.) Health and Medicine Division
Thinness
Sample Size
Retrospective Studies

Keywords

  • Gestational weight gain
  • Pregnancy outcomes
  • Stillbirth
  • Weight loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

Cite this

The association between gestational weight gain and risk of stillbirth : A population-based cohort study. / Yao, Ruofan; Park, Bo Y.; Foster, Sarah E.; Caughey, Aaron.

In: Annals of Epidemiology, 2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{fdd94f61c26e4d07b614aaeb6bcb93fa,
title = "The association between gestational weight gain and risk of stillbirth: A population-based cohort study",
abstract = "Purpose: To estimate the risk of stillbirth associated with excessive and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy. Methods: Retrospective cohort study using the Texas vital records database between 2006 and 2011, with 2,230,310 births (5502 stillbirths) was included for analysis. Pregnancies were categorized as adequate weight gain, excessive weight gain, inadequate weight gain, or weight loss based on the Institute of Medicine 2009 recommendations. Hazard ratios (HRs) for stillbirth were estimated for each gestational weight-gain stratum using adequate weight gain as the comparison group. The analysis was performed separately for each body mass index (BMI) class. Results: Both inadequate weight gain and weight loss were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth for all BMI classes except the morbidly obese group. Highest risk was seen in weight-loss groups after 36 completed weeks (normal weight: HR = 18.85 [8.25-43.09]; overweight: HR = 5.87 [2.99-11.55]; obese: HR = 3.44 [2.34-5.05]). Weight loss was associated with reduced stillbirth risk in morbidly obese women between 24 and 28 weeks (HR = 0.56 [0.34-0.95]). Excess weight gain was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth among obese and morbidly obese women, with highest risk after 36 completed weeks (obese: HR = 2.00 [1.55-2.58]; morbidly obese: HR = 3.16 [2.17-4.62]). In contrast, excess weight gain was associated with reduced risk of stillbirth in normal-weight women between 24 and 28 weeks (HR = 0.57 [0.44-0.70]) and in overweight women between 29 and 33 weeks (HR = 0.62 [0.45-0.85]). Analysis for the underweight group was limited by sample size. Both excessive weight gain and inadequate weight gain were not associated with stillbirth in this group. Conclusions: Stillbirth risk increased with inadequate weight gain and weight loss in all BMI classes except the morbidly obese group, where weight demonstrated a protective effect. Conversely, excessive weight gain was associated with higher risk of stillbirth among obese and morbidly obese women but was protective against stillbirth in lower weight women.",
keywords = "Gestational weight gain, Pregnancy outcomes, Stillbirth, Weight loss",
author = "Ruofan Yao and Park, {Bo Y.} and Foster, {Sarah E.} and Aaron Caughey",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1016/j.annepidem.2017.09.006",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Annals of Epidemiology",
issn = "1047-2797",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The association between gestational weight gain and risk of stillbirth

T2 - A population-based cohort study

AU - Yao, Ruofan

AU - Park, Bo Y.

AU - Foster, Sarah E.

AU - Caughey, Aaron

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Purpose: To estimate the risk of stillbirth associated with excessive and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy. Methods: Retrospective cohort study using the Texas vital records database between 2006 and 2011, with 2,230,310 births (5502 stillbirths) was included for analysis. Pregnancies were categorized as adequate weight gain, excessive weight gain, inadequate weight gain, or weight loss based on the Institute of Medicine 2009 recommendations. Hazard ratios (HRs) for stillbirth were estimated for each gestational weight-gain stratum using adequate weight gain as the comparison group. The analysis was performed separately for each body mass index (BMI) class. Results: Both inadequate weight gain and weight loss were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth for all BMI classes except the morbidly obese group. Highest risk was seen in weight-loss groups after 36 completed weeks (normal weight: HR = 18.85 [8.25-43.09]; overweight: HR = 5.87 [2.99-11.55]; obese: HR = 3.44 [2.34-5.05]). Weight loss was associated with reduced stillbirth risk in morbidly obese women between 24 and 28 weeks (HR = 0.56 [0.34-0.95]). Excess weight gain was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth among obese and morbidly obese women, with highest risk after 36 completed weeks (obese: HR = 2.00 [1.55-2.58]; morbidly obese: HR = 3.16 [2.17-4.62]). In contrast, excess weight gain was associated with reduced risk of stillbirth in normal-weight women between 24 and 28 weeks (HR = 0.57 [0.44-0.70]) and in overweight women between 29 and 33 weeks (HR = 0.62 [0.45-0.85]). Analysis for the underweight group was limited by sample size. Both excessive weight gain and inadequate weight gain were not associated with stillbirth in this group. Conclusions: Stillbirth risk increased with inadequate weight gain and weight loss in all BMI classes except the morbidly obese group, where weight demonstrated a protective effect. Conversely, excessive weight gain was associated with higher risk of stillbirth among obese and morbidly obese women but was protective against stillbirth in lower weight women.

AB - Purpose: To estimate the risk of stillbirth associated with excessive and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy. Methods: Retrospective cohort study using the Texas vital records database between 2006 and 2011, with 2,230,310 births (5502 stillbirths) was included for analysis. Pregnancies were categorized as adequate weight gain, excessive weight gain, inadequate weight gain, or weight loss based on the Institute of Medicine 2009 recommendations. Hazard ratios (HRs) for stillbirth were estimated for each gestational weight-gain stratum using adequate weight gain as the comparison group. The analysis was performed separately for each body mass index (BMI) class. Results: Both inadequate weight gain and weight loss were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth for all BMI classes except the morbidly obese group. Highest risk was seen in weight-loss groups after 36 completed weeks (normal weight: HR = 18.85 [8.25-43.09]; overweight: HR = 5.87 [2.99-11.55]; obese: HR = 3.44 [2.34-5.05]). Weight loss was associated with reduced stillbirth risk in morbidly obese women between 24 and 28 weeks (HR = 0.56 [0.34-0.95]). Excess weight gain was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth among obese and morbidly obese women, with highest risk after 36 completed weeks (obese: HR = 2.00 [1.55-2.58]; morbidly obese: HR = 3.16 [2.17-4.62]). In contrast, excess weight gain was associated with reduced risk of stillbirth in normal-weight women between 24 and 28 weeks (HR = 0.57 [0.44-0.70]) and in overweight women between 29 and 33 weeks (HR = 0.62 [0.45-0.85]). Analysis for the underweight group was limited by sample size. Both excessive weight gain and inadequate weight gain were not associated with stillbirth in this group. Conclusions: Stillbirth risk increased with inadequate weight gain and weight loss in all BMI classes except the morbidly obese group, where weight demonstrated a protective effect. Conversely, excessive weight gain was associated with higher risk of stillbirth among obese and morbidly obese women but was protective against stillbirth in lower weight women.

KW - Gestational weight gain

KW - Pregnancy outcomes

KW - Stillbirth

KW - Weight loss

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85030457790&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85030457790&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.annepidem.2017.09.006

DO - 10.1016/j.annepidem.2017.09.006

M3 - Article

C2 - 28969875

AN - SCOPUS:85030457790

JO - Annals of Epidemiology

JF - Annals of Epidemiology

SN - 1047-2797

ER -