Temporal profile of the pro-and anti-inflammatory responses to severe hemorrhage in patients with venous thromboembolism: Findings from the PROPPR trial

Belinda H. McCully, Charlie E. Wade, Erin E. Fox, Kenji Inaba, Mitchell J. Cohen, John B. Holcomb, Martin A. Schreiber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: The Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) trial showed that 15% of patients developed venous thromboembolism (VTE) following hemorrhage, but the mechanisms are unknown. Since inflammation is associated with hypercoagulability and thrombosis, our goal was to compare the temporal inflammatory profile following hemorrhagic shock in patients with and without VTE. STUDY DESIGN Secondary analysis was performed on data collected from PROPPR. Blood samples collected at 0 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours following admission were assayed on a 27-target cytokine panel, and compared between VTE (n = 83) and non-VTE (n = 475) patients. p < 0.05 indicated significance. Results: Over time, both groups exhibited elevations in proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 57, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β, and anti-inflammatory mediators IL-1ra and IL-10 (p < 0.05 vs. admission). Venous thromboembolism patients showed amplified responses for IL-6 (6-72 hours) and IL-8 (6-24 hours), which peaked at later time points, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 57 (12-24 hours), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (6-72 hours), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 β (2-12 hours) (p < 0.05 vs. non-VTE per time point) that peaked at similar time points to non-VTE patients. The anti-inflammatory responses were similar between groups, but the interleukin-mediated proinflammatory responses continued to rise after the peak anti-inflammatory response in the VTE group. The occurrence rate of adverse events was higher in VTE (97%) versus non-VTE (87%, p = 0.009) and was associated with higher inflammation. Conclusion: Patients with VTE following hemorrhagic shock exhibited a prolonged and amplified proinflammatory responses mediated by select interleukin, chemotactic, and glycoprotein cytokines that are not antagonized by anti-inflammatory mediators. This response is not related to randomization group, injury severity or degree of shock, but may be linked to adverse events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)845-852
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2021


  • Hemorrhage
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukins
  • Thromboembolism
  • Trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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