TEG Lysis Shutdown Represents Coagulopathy in Bleeding Trauma Patients: Analysis of the PROPPR Cohort

PROPPR Study Group

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    17 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Thrombelastography (TEG) fibrinolysis shutdown after trauma is associated with increased mortality due to hypercoagulability-associated organ failure. However, a lack of mechanistic data has precluded the development of novel interventions to treat shutdown. OBJECTIVES: To define the pathophysiology of TEG shutdown in severely injured, bleeding patients through secondary analysis of the PROPPR trial. METHODS: Fibrinolysis was characterized in PROPPR subjects using admission TEG lysis at 30 min (LY30) or plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) levels. LY30 categories were low (<0.9%), moderate (0.9-2.9%), or high (≥ 3%). PAP was classified as low (<1,500 μg/L), moderate (1,500-20,000 μg/L), or high (>20,000 μg/L). Demographics, outcomes, admission TEG values, platelet count and function, standard coagulation tests, and coagulation proteins were compared. RESULTS: Five hundred forty-seven patients had TEG data and 549 patients had PAP data available. Low LY30 was associated with reduced platelet count and aggregation, poorer TEG clot formation, prolonged clotting times, and reduced fibrinogen and alpha2 antiplasmin. Compared to moderate PAP, low PAP subjects had similar platelet parameters, TEG values, fibrinogen, and alpha2 antiplasmin, but reduced tPA, and elevated PAI-1. D-Dimer values increased as PAP increased, however patients with low LY30 had elevated D-Dimer compared with moderate LY30 patients. Most low LY30 deaths were due to TBI (45%) and hemorrhage (42%) versus one of each cause (TBI, hemorrhage, MOF) in low PAP patients. CONCLUSIONS: Low TEG LY30 does not reflect shutdown of enzymatic fibrinolysis with hypercoagulability, but rather a coagulopathic state of moderate fibrinolysis with fibrinogen consumption and platelet dysfunction that is associated with poor outcomes.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)273-283
    Number of pages11
    JournalShock (Augusta, Ga.)
    Volume51
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

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    Thrombelastography
    Antifibrinolytic Agents
    Fibrinolysin
    Cohort Studies
    Hemorrhage
    Wounds and Injuries
    Fibrinolysis
    Fibrinogen
    Thrombophilia
    Platelet Count
    Blood Platelets
    Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
    Platelet Aggregation
    Demography
    Mortality

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Emergency Medicine
    • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

    Cite this

    TEG Lysis Shutdown Represents Coagulopathy in Bleeding Trauma Patients : Analysis of the PROPPR Cohort. / PROPPR Study Group.

    In: Shock (Augusta, Ga.), Vol. 51, No. 3, 01.03.2019, p. 273-283.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    title = "TEG Lysis Shutdown Represents Coagulopathy in Bleeding Trauma Patients: Analysis of the PROPPR Cohort",
    abstract = "BACKGROUND: Thrombelastography (TEG) fibrinolysis shutdown after trauma is associated with increased mortality due to hypercoagulability-associated organ failure. However, a lack of mechanistic data has precluded the development of novel interventions to treat shutdown. OBJECTIVES: To define the pathophysiology of TEG shutdown in severely injured, bleeding patients through secondary analysis of the PROPPR trial. METHODS: Fibrinolysis was characterized in PROPPR subjects using admission TEG lysis at 30 min (LY30) or plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) levels. LY30 categories were low (<0.9{\%}), moderate (0.9-2.9{\%}), or high (≥ 3{\%}). PAP was classified as low (<1,500 μg/L), moderate (1,500-20,000 μg/L), or high (>20,000 μg/L). Demographics, outcomes, admission TEG values, platelet count and function, standard coagulation tests, and coagulation proteins were compared. RESULTS: Five hundred forty-seven patients had TEG data and 549 patients had PAP data available. Low LY30 was associated with reduced platelet count and aggregation, poorer TEG clot formation, prolonged clotting times, and reduced fibrinogen and alpha2 antiplasmin. Compared to moderate PAP, low PAP subjects had similar platelet parameters, TEG values, fibrinogen, and alpha2 antiplasmin, but reduced tPA, and elevated PAI-1. D-Dimer values increased as PAP increased, however patients with low LY30 had elevated D-Dimer compared with moderate LY30 patients. Most low LY30 deaths were due to TBI (45{\%}) and hemorrhage (42{\%}) versus one of each cause (TBI, hemorrhage, MOF) in low PAP patients. CONCLUSIONS: Low TEG LY30 does not reflect shutdown of enzymatic fibrinolysis with hypercoagulability, but rather a coagulopathic state of moderate fibrinolysis with fibrinogen consumption and platelet dysfunction that is associated with poor outcomes.",
    author = "{PROPPR Study Group} and Cardenas, {Jessica C.} and Wade, {Charles E.} and Cotton, {Bryan A.} and George, {Mitchell J.} and Holcomb, {John B.} and Martin Schreiber and White, {Nathan J.}",
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    T1 - TEG Lysis Shutdown Represents Coagulopathy in Bleeding Trauma Patients

    T2 - Analysis of the PROPPR Cohort

    AU - PROPPR Study Group

    AU - Cardenas, Jessica C.

    AU - Wade, Charles E.

    AU - Cotton, Bryan A.

    AU - George, Mitchell J.

    AU - Holcomb, John B.

    AU - Schreiber, Martin

    AU - White, Nathan J.

    PY - 2019/3/1

    Y1 - 2019/3/1

    N2 - BACKGROUND: Thrombelastography (TEG) fibrinolysis shutdown after trauma is associated with increased mortality due to hypercoagulability-associated organ failure. However, a lack of mechanistic data has precluded the development of novel interventions to treat shutdown. OBJECTIVES: To define the pathophysiology of TEG shutdown in severely injured, bleeding patients through secondary analysis of the PROPPR trial. METHODS: Fibrinolysis was characterized in PROPPR subjects using admission TEG lysis at 30 min (LY30) or plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) levels. LY30 categories were low (<0.9%), moderate (0.9-2.9%), or high (≥ 3%). PAP was classified as low (<1,500 μg/L), moderate (1,500-20,000 μg/L), or high (>20,000 μg/L). Demographics, outcomes, admission TEG values, platelet count and function, standard coagulation tests, and coagulation proteins were compared. RESULTS: Five hundred forty-seven patients had TEG data and 549 patients had PAP data available. Low LY30 was associated with reduced platelet count and aggregation, poorer TEG clot formation, prolonged clotting times, and reduced fibrinogen and alpha2 antiplasmin. Compared to moderate PAP, low PAP subjects had similar platelet parameters, TEG values, fibrinogen, and alpha2 antiplasmin, but reduced tPA, and elevated PAI-1. D-Dimer values increased as PAP increased, however patients with low LY30 had elevated D-Dimer compared with moderate LY30 patients. Most low LY30 deaths were due to TBI (45%) and hemorrhage (42%) versus one of each cause (TBI, hemorrhage, MOF) in low PAP patients. CONCLUSIONS: Low TEG LY30 does not reflect shutdown of enzymatic fibrinolysis with hypercoagulability, but rather a coagulopathic state of moderate fibrinolysis with fibrinogen consumption and platelet dysfunction that is associated with poor outcomes.

    AB - BACKGROUND: Thrombelastography (TEG) fibrinolysis shutdown after trauma is associated with increased mortality due to hypercoagulability-associated organ failure. However, a lack of mechanistic data has precluded the development of novel interventions to treat shutdown. OBJECTIVES: To define the pathophysiology of TEG shutdown in severely injured, bleeding patients through secondary analysis of the PROPPR trial. METHODS: Fibrinolysis was characterized in PROPPR subjects using admission TEG lysis at 30 min (LY30) or plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) levels. LY30 categories were low (<0.9%), moderate (0.9-2.9%), or high (≥ 3%). PAP was classified as low (<1,500 μg/L), moderate (1,500-20,000 μg/L), or high (>20,000 μg/L). Demographics, outcomes, admission TEG values, platelet count and function, standard coagulation tests, and coagulation proteins were compared. RESULTS: Five hundred forty-seven patients had TEG data and 549 patients had PAP data available. Low LY30 was associated with reduced platelet count and aggregation, poorer TEG clot formation, prolonged clotting times, and reduced fibrinogen and alpha2 antiplasmin. Compared to moderate PAP, low PAP subjects had similar platelet parameters, TEG values, fibrinogen, and alpha2 antiplasmin, but reduced tPA, and elevated PAI-1. D-Dimer values increased as PAP increased, however patients with low LY30 had elevated D-Dimer compared with moderate LY30 patients. Most low LY30 deaths were due to TBI (45%) and hemorrhage (42%) versus one of each cause (TBI, hemorrhage, MOF) in low PAP patients. CONCLUSIONS: Low TEG LY30 does not reflect shutdown of enzymatic fibrinolysis with hypercoagulability, but rather a coagulopathic state of moderate fibrinolysis with fibrinogen consumption and platelet dysfunction that is associated with poor outcomes.

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