Spontaneous fatal intraoperative rupture of great vessel during growing rod lengthening: Do children with ehlers-danlos syndrome require the availability of vascular expertise? A case report and review of the literature

Zachary M. Working, Mark Hsiao, John C. Sanders, Susan L. Bratton, Jacques L. D'astous

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a family of inherited connective tissue diseases. Kyphoscoliotic EDS (kEDS) is associated with severe and early spinal deformity. Very little has been reported regarding the orthopaedic surgical care of kEDS likely due to its rare incidence. A more common subtype is the vascular-type EDS (vEDS, previously labeled type IV), which is associated with reports of vascular complications in the literature. Methods: The case report of a single, fatal complication of spontaneous rupture of the superior vena cava, after extubation, subsequent to revision minimal growing rod lengthening in a child with kEDS. We additionally review prior reported cases of kEDS for pediatric spine surgery and the sentinel event of spontaneous vascular rupture in all EDS patients. Results: The anterior thoracoabdominal approach in children with kEDS has been associated with severe intravascular complications, with no deaths reported to date. Posterior spinal procedures were associated with frequent overall complications, but no events of perioperative or spontaneous vascular injury were identified before our case. Reports of spontaneous vessel rupture (n=39) appear more frequently in vEDS, but have been documented in patients with EDS type I (classic EDS or cEDS) and kEDS disease. The 30-day mortality in these patients was 59%. The majority of the deaths occurred on the day of the vascular event. Surviving patients overwhelmingly received intraoperative consultation and treatment from either general or vascular surgeons at their respective institutions for assistance. Conclusions: Providers should consider their proximity to available emergent consultation before operating on patients with EDS of any subtype.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e4-e9
JournalJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
Volume37
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Keywords

  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • growing rod
  • intraoperative complications
  • spontaneous vessel rupture
  • vascular fragility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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