The chemokine receptor CCR5 acts as an essential cofactor for cell entry by macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains, whereas CXCR4 acts as an essential cofactor for T-cell-line-adapted strains. We demonstrated that the specific amino acids in the V3 loop of the HIV-1 envelope protein that determine cellular tropism also regulate chemokine coreceptor preference for cell entry by the virus. Further, a strong correlation was found between HIV-1 strains classified as syncytium inducing in standard assays and those using CXCR4 as a coreceptor. These data support the hypothesis that progressive adaptation to additional coreceptors is a key molecular basis for HIV-1 phenotypic evolution in vivo.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science