S100 proteins as an important regulator of macrophage inflammation

Chang Xia, Zachary Braunstein, Amelia C. Toomey, Jixin Zhong, Xiaoquan Rao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

165 Scopus citations


The S100 proteins, a family of calcium-binding cytosolic proteins, have a broad range of intracellular and extracellular functions through regulating calcium balance, cell apoptosis, migration, proliferation, differentiation, energy metabolism, and inflammation. The intracellular functions of S100 proteins involve interaction with intracellular receptors, membrane protein recruitment/transportation, transcriptional regulation and integrating with enzymes or nucleic acids, and DNA repair. The S100 proteins could also be released from the cytoplasm, induced by tissue/cell damage and cellular stress. The extracellular S100 proteins, serving as a danger signal, are crucial in regulating immune homeostasis, post-traumatic injury, and inflammation. Extracellular S100 proteins are also considered biomarkers for some specific diseases. In this review, we will discuss the multi-functional roles of S100 proteins, especially their potential roles associated with cell migration, differentiation, tissue repair, and inflammation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1908
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Issue numberJAN
StatePublished - Jan 5 2018


  • Biomarkers
  • Inflammation
  • Inflammatory disease
  • Macrophages
  • S100 proteins
  • Tissue repair

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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