Risk factors for non-Aspergillus mold infection (NAMI) and the impact on transplant outcome are poorly assessed in the current era of antifungal agents. Outcomes of 124 patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) diagnosed with either mucormycosis (n=72) or fusariosis (n=52) between days 0 and 365 after HCT are described and compared with a control cohort (n=11 856). Patients with NAMI had more advanced disease (mucormycois: 25%, fusariosis: 23% and controls: 18%; P=0.004) and were more likely to have a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) <90% at HCT (mucormycosis: 42%, fusariosis: 38% and controls: 28%; P=0.048). The 1-year survival after HCT was 22% (15-29%) for cases and was significantly inferior compared with controls (65% (64-65%); P<0.001). Survival from infection was similarly dismal regardless of mucormycosis: 15% (8-25%) and fusariosis: 21% (11-33%). In multivariable analysis, NAMI was associated with a sixfold higher risk of death (P<0.0001) regardless of the site or timing of infection. Risk factors for mucormycosis include preceding acute GvHD, prior Aspergillus infection and older age. For fusariosis, increased risks including receipt of cord blood, prior CMV infection and transplant before May 2002. In conclusion, NAMI occurs infrequently, is associated with high mortality and appears with similar frequency in the current antifungal era.
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