Aims: The structural organization of collagen from mineralized tissues, such as dentin and bone, has been a topic of debate in the recent literature. Recent reports have presented novel interpretations of the complexity of collagen type I at different hierarchical levels and in different tissues. Here, we investigate the nanostructural organization of demineralized dentin collagen following the digestion of non-collagenous components with a trypsin enzyme. Materials and Methods: Dentin specimens were obtained from healthy third-molars, cut into small cubes, and polished down to 1 µm roughness. Samples were then demineralized with 10% citric acid for 2 min. Selected specimens were further treated with a solution containing 1 mg/ml trypsin for 48 hours at 37 °C (pH 7.9–9.0). Both untreated and trypsin digested samples were analyzed using SDS-PAGE, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and nanoindentation, where surface hardness and creep properties were compared before and after treatments. Results: FE-SEM images of demineralized dentin showed the banded morphology of D-periodical collagen type I, which upon enzymatic digestion with trypsin appeared to dissociate longitudinally, consistently unraveling ~20 nm structures (microfibril bundles). Such nanoscale structures, to the best of our knowledge, have not been characterized in dentin previously. Mechanical characterization via nanoindentation showed that the unraveling of such microfibril bundles affected the creep displacement and creep rate of demineralized dentin. Conclusion: In summary, our results provide novel evidence of the organization of collagen type I from dentin, which may have important implications for the interaction of dental materials with the organic dentin matrix and the mechanical properties of mineralized tissues.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology