Aims: To test whether adjusting insulin and glucagon in response to exercise within a dual-hormone artificial pancreas (AP) reduces exercise-related hypoglycaemia. Materials and methods: In random order, 21 adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) underwent three 22-hour experimental sessions: AP with exercise dosing adjustment (APX); AP with no exercise dosing adjustment (APN); and sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy. After an overnight stay and 2 hours after breakfast, participants exercised for 45 minutes at 60% of their maximum heart rate, with no snack given before exercise. During APX, insulin was decreased and glucagon was increased at exercise onset, while during SAP therapy, subjects could adjust dosing before exercise. The two primary outcomes were percentage of time spent in hypoglycaemia (<3.9 mmol/L) and percentage of time spent in euglycaemia (3.9-10 mmol/L) from the start of exercise to the end of the study. Results: The mean (95% confidence interval) times spent in hypoglycaemia (<3.9 mmol/L) after the start of exercise were 0.3% (−0.1, 0.7) for APX, 3.1% (0.8, 5.3) for APN, and 0.8% (0.1, 1.4) for SAP therapy. There was an absolute difference of 2.8% less time spent in hypoglycaemia for APX versus APN (p =.001) and 0.5% less time spent in hypoglycaemia for APX versus SAP therapy (p =.16). Mean time spent in euglycaemia was similar across the different sessions. Conclusions: Adjusting insulin and glucagon delivery at exercise onset within a dual-hormone AP significantly reduces hypoglycaemia compared with no adjustment and performs similarly to SAP therapy when insulin is adjusted before exercise.
- artificial pancreas
- continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)
- insulin delivery
- type 1 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism