Race-Dependent Association of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels With Incident Coronary Artery Disease

Neil A. Zakai, Jessica Minnier, Monika M. Safford, Insu Koh, Marguerite R. Irvin, Sergio Fazio, Mary Cushman, Virginia J. Howard, Nathalie Pamir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Plasma lipids are risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in part because of race-specific associations of lipids with CHD. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to understand why CHD risk equations underperform in Black adults. Methods: Between 2003 and 2007, the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) cohort recruited 30,239 Black and White individuals aged ≥45 years from the contiguous United States. We used Cox regression models adjusted for clinical and behavioral risk factors to estimate the race-specific hazard of plasma lipid levels with incident CHD (myocardial infarction or CHD death). Results: Among 23,901 CHD-free participants (57.8% White and 58.4% women, mean age 64 ± 9 years) over a median 10 years of follow-up, 664 and 951 CHD events occurred among Black and White adults, respectively. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were associated with increased risk of CHD in both races (P interaction by race >0.10). For sex-specific clinical HDL-C categories: low HDL-C was associated with increased CHD risk in White (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43) but not in Black (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.78-1.14) adults (P interaction by race = 0.08); high HDL-C was not associated with decreased CHD events in either race (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.79-1.16 for White participants and HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.74-1.12 for Black adults). Conclusions: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides modestly predicted CHD risk in Black and White adults. Low HDL-C was associated with increased CHD risk in White but not Black adults, and high HDL-C was not protective in either group. Current high-density lipoprotein cholesterol–based risk calculations could lead to inaccurate risk assessment in Black adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2104-2115
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume80
Issue number22
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 29 2022

Keywords

  • CHD
  • HDL
  • cholesterol
  • health disparities
  • myocardial infarction
  • public health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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