Pulmonary hypertension in interstitial lung diseases is associated with increased mortality and hospitalizations and reduced exercise capacity. Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) is a recently described interstitial lung disease. The characteristics of pulmonary hypertension in IPAF patients are unknown. We sought to characterize patients with IPAF based on their echocardiographic probability of pulmonary hypertension and compare patients with and without pulmonary hypertension identified by right heart catheterization. We conducted a retrospective study of patients seen in the interstitial lung disease clinic from 2015 to 2018. Forty-seven patients with IPAF were identified. Patients were classified into low, intermediate and high echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension probabilities. A sub-group analysis of patients with pulmonary hypertension and without pulmonary hypertension (IPAF-PH vs. IPAF-no PH) identified by right heart catheterization was also performed. Linear regression analysis was performed to study the association between 6-min-walk-distance (6MWD) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) while adjusting for age and body mass index. Right ventricular hypertrophy (>5 mm), right ventricular enlargement (>41 mm) and right ventricular systolic dysfunction defined as fractional area change% ≤35 was present in 76%, 24%, and 39% of patients, respectively. Pulmonary hypertension was identified in 12.7% of patients. IPAF-PH patients had higher mean pulmonary artery pressure and lower cardiac output compared to the IPAF-no PH group (34 mmHg vs. 19 mmHg, p = 0.002 and 4.0 vs. 5.7 L/min, p = 0.023, respectively). Lower 6MWD was associated with higher PVR on regression analysis (p = 0.002). Pulmonologists should be aware that a significant number of IPAF patients may develop pulmonary hypertension. Reduced 6MWD may suggest the presence of pulmonary hypertension in IPAF patients.
- interstitial lung disease
- interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune feature
- pulmonary hypertension
- six-min walk distance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine