Objectives. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study to determine the results of treatment for prostate cancer in solid organ transplant recipients. Methods. A retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with prostate cancer after organ transplantation at five centers was conducted. Data were obtained by chart review and a multipoint data sheet was used to abstract the data from the patient charts. Results. Eighteen cases of prostate cancer were identified from six institutions. Most (84%) of the cancers were clinically localized at the time of diagnosis. Nine (50%) of 18 patients underwent radical prostatectomy, which was the predominant mode of treatment. Overall survival at a mean follow-up of 32 months was 66%, with a cancer specific mortality of 16%. Mortality was 13% for the 15 patients with localized disease and 33% for the 3 patients with metasiatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions. Most of the patients with prostate cancer being detected after solid organ transplantation were diagnosed with localized disease. Aggressive therapeutic intervention as in the general (nontransplant) population yields good results and should be pursued. Diligent surveillance for prostate cancer in this population using periodic digital rectal examination, serum prostate-specific antigen, and prostate needle biopsy as needed will ensure earlier cancer detection and allow for definitive therapeutic intervention.
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