Background: Rates of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) are strikingly high in India compared to Western countries and are increasing. Moreover, ASCVD events occur at a younger age with only modest hypercholesterolemia, most commonly with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The course of ASCVD also appears to be more fulminant with higher mortality. Objective: In light of these issues, the Lipid Association of India (LAI) endeavored to develop revised guidelines with more aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals in secondary prevention and for patients with familial hypercholesterolemia compared to guidelines in the United States and other countries. Methods: Owing to the paucity of clinical outcomes data in India, it was necessary to place major emphasis on expert opinion as a complement to randomized placebo-controlled data generated mostly in non-Indian cohorts. To facilitate this process, the LAI conducted a series of 19 meetings among 162 lipid specialists in 13 cities throughout India over a period of 11 months before formulating this expert consensus statement. Results: The LAI recommends an LDL-C goal <50 mg/dL in all patients in secondary prevention or very high-risk primary prevention but proposes an optional goal ≤30 mg/dL in category A extreme-risk patients (eg, coronary artery disease + familial hypercholesterolemia) and a recommended goal ≤30 mg/dL in category B extreme-risk patients [coronary artery disease + (1) diabetes and polyvascular disease/≥3 major ASCVD risk factors/end organ damage, or (2) recurrent acute coronary syndrome within 12 months despite LDL-C <50 mg/dL, or (3) homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia]. Conclusions: More aggressive LDL-C goals are needed for prevention of ASCVD in India, as described in this expert consensus statement. Use of statins and ezetimibe needs to increase in India in combination with improved control of other ASCVD risk factors. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors can improve LDL-C goal achievement in patients with refractory hypercholesterolemia.
- Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)
- Cardiovascular risk factors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine