Prolonged Posttreatment Virologic Control and Complete Seroreversion after Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection

Analia Uruena, Isabel Cassetti, Neena Kashyap, Claire Deleage, Jacob D. Estes, Christopher Trindade, Dima A. Hammoud, Peter D. Burbelo, Ven Natarajan, Robin Dewar, Hiromi Imamichi, Addison J. Ward, April Poole, Alexander Ober, Catherine Rehm, Sara Jones, C. Jason Liang, Tae Wook Chun, Avindra Nath, H. Clifford LaneBryan R. Smith, Mark Connors, Stephen A. Migueles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Possible human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 clearance has rarely been reported. In this study, we describe a unique case of an HIV-positive, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-experienced woman with prior acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who has not experienced viral rebound for over 12 years since discontinuing cART. Methods: Leukapheresis, colonoscopy, and lymph node excision were performed for detailed examination of virologic (including HIV reservoir) and immunologic features. Comparisons were made with chronically infected patients and healthy controls. Results: No HIV-specific antibodies were detected in serum. Plasma HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) levels were <0.2 copies/mL, and, except for low-frequency HIV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)+ cells in lymph node tissue (1 copy/3 × 106 cells), HIV antigen could not be detected by quantitative virus outgrowth (<0.0025 infectious units/106 CD4+ T cells) or by most measurements of HIV RNA or DNA in blood, lymph node, or gut-associated mononuclear cells. Human immunodeficiency virus-specific T-cell responses were detectable but low. Brain imaging revealed a prior biopsy site and persistent white matter disease since 1996. Human immunodeficiency virus DNA+ cells in the 1996 brain biopsy specimen confirmed her identity and initial HIV diagnosis. Conclusions: This represents the first report of complete seroreversion, prolonged posttreatment virus suppression, a profoundly small HIV reservoir, and persistent HIV-specific T cells in an adult with prior AIDS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberofaa613
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume8
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021

Keywords

  • HIV-1 seroreversion
  • HIV-specific T cells
  • functional cure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Neurology

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