Purpose To detect macular perfusion defects in glaucoma using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Design Prospective observation study. Participants A total of 30 perimetric glaucoma and 30 age-matched normal participants were included. Methods One eye of each participant was imaged using 6×6–mm macular OCT angiography (OCTA) scan pattern by 70-kHz 840-nm spectral-domain OCT. Flow signal was calculated by the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm. A projection-resolved OCTA (PR-OCTA) algorithm was used to remove flow projection artifacts. Four en face OCTA slabs were analyzed: the superficial vascular complex (SVC), intermediate capillary plexus (ICP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and all-plexus retina (SVC + ICP + DCP). The vessel density (VD), defined as the percentage area occupied by flow pixels, was calculated from en face OCTA. A novel algorithm was used to adjust the vessel density to compensate for local variations in OCT signal strength. Main Outcome Measures Macular retinal VD, ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, and visual field (VF) sensitivity. Results Focal capillary dropout could be visualized in the SVC, but not the ICP and DVP, in glaucomatous eyes. In the glaucoma group, the SVC and all-plexus retinal VD (mean ± standard deviation: 47.2%±7.1% and 73.5%±6.6%) were lower than in the normal group (60.5%±4.0% and 83.2%±4.2%, both P < 0.001, t test). The ICP and DCP VD were not significantly lower in the glaucoma group. Among the overall macular VD parameters, the SVC VD had the best diagnostic accuracy as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC). The accuracy was even better when the worse hemisphere (inferior or superior) was used, achieving an AROC of 0.983 and a sensitivity of 96.7% at a specificity of 95%. Among the glaucoma participants, the hemispheric SVC VD values were highly correlated with the corresponding GCC thickness and VF sensitivity (P < 0.003). The reflectance compensation step in VD calculation significantly improved repeatability, normal population variation, and correlation with VF and GCC thickness. Conclusions On the basis of PR-OCTA, glaucoma preferentially affects perfusion in the SVC in the macula more than the deeper plexuses. Reflectance-compensated SVC VD measurement by PR-OCTA detected glaucoma with high accuracy and could be useful in the clinical evaluation of glaucoma.
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