We report a case of disappearing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) syndrome caused by oxidative modification of HDL and by autoantibodies against modified HDL, with subsequent diagnosis of myeloma. An elderly Caucasian man had normal lipid levels with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the upper 70 mg/dL range from 1999 to 2003. In 2003, his HDL-C levels began to progressively fall, and by 2011, they were undetectable (<5 mg/dL) when measured with a Beckman Synchron LX auto analyzer. Analyses of the plasma sample from 2011 using ultracentrifugation (Vertical Auto Profile), nuclear magnetic resonance, and Ace EXCEL auto analyzer have shown that HDL-C levels were easily detectable (47–54 mg/dL), although reduced compared with his pre-2003 values. Analyses of his plasma sample from 2011 also showed the presence of lipid-adducted apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) and high titer of antibodies against the adducted apoA1. Interestingly, a negative correlation between HDL-C levels and the titer of antibodies against apoA1 adducts was found in the control cohort. Finally, we show that in the mouse system, an antibody against apoA1 increases the clearance of HDL from plasma. This case of smoldering myeloma preceded by acquired, severe HDL-C deficiency, likely because of oxidative modifications of the HDL protein leading to the formation of autoantibodies, interference with clinical measurement of HDL-C, and increased plasma clearance of HDL, adds to the list of diagnostic considerations for unexplained HDL-C decreases over time.
- Disappearing HDL
- Isolevuglandin adducts
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine