At a number of synapses, long-term potentiation (LTP) can be expressed by an increase in presynaptic strength, but it is unknown whether presynaptic LTP is expressed solely through an increase in the probability that a single vesicle is released or whether it can increase multivesicular release (MVR). Here, we show that presynaptic LTP decreases inhibition of AMPA receptor EPSCs by a low-affinity antagonist at parallel fiber-molecular layer interneuron (PF-MLI) synapses. This indicates that LTP induction results in larger glutamate concentration transients in the synaptic cleft, a result indicative of MVR, and suggests that MVR can be modified by long-term plasticity. A similar decrease in inhibition was observed when release probability (PR) was increased by forskolin, elevated extracellular Ca2+, and paired-pulse facilitation. Furthermore, we show that MVR may occur under baseline physiological conditions, as inhibition increased when PR was lowered by reducing extracellular Ca2+ or by activating presynaptic adenosine receptors. These results suggest that at PF-MLI synapses, MVR occurs under control conditions and is increased when PR is elevated by both short- and long-term plasticity mechanisms.
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