Post-Transplant Outcomes in High-Risk Compared with Non–High-Risk Multiple Myeloma: A CIBMTR Analysis

Emma C. Scott, Parameswaran Hari, Manish Sharma, Jennifer Le-Rademacher, Jiaxing Huang, Dan Vogl, Muneer Abidi, Amer Beitinjaneh, Henry Fung, Siddhartha Ganguly, Gerhard Hildebrandt, Leona Holmberg, Matt Kalaycio, Shaji Kumar, Robert Kyle, Hillard Lazarus, Cindy Lee, Richard T. Maziarz, Kenneth Meehan, Joseph MikhaelTaiga Nishihori, Muthalagu Ramanathan, Saad Usmani, Jason Tay, David Vesole, Baldeep Wirk, Jean Yared, Bipin N. Savani, Cristina Gasparetto, Amrita Krishnan, Tomer Mark, Yago Nieto, Anita D'Souza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Conventional cytogenetics and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identify high-risk multiple myeloma (HRM) populations characterized by poor outcomes. We analyzed these differences among HRM versus non-HRM populations after upfront autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (autoHCT). Between 2008 and 2012, 715 patients with multiple myeloma identified by FISH and/or cytogenetic data with upfront autoHCT were identified in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database. HRM was defined as del17p, t(4;14), t(14;16), hypodiploidy (<45 chromosomes excluding -Y) or chromosome 1 p and 1q abnormalities; all others were non-HRM. Among 125 HRM patients (17.5%), induction with bortezomib and immunomodulatory agents (imids) was higher compared with non-HRM (56% versus 43%, P < .001) with similar pretransplant complete response (CR) rates (14% versus 16%, P .1). At day 100 post-transplant, at least a very good partial response was 59% in HRM and 61% in non-HRM (P = .6). More HRM patients received post-transplant therapy with bortezomib and imids (26% versus 12%, P = .004). Three-year post-transplant progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates in HRM versus non-HRM were 37% versus 49% (P < .001) and 72% versus 85% (P < .001), respectively. At 3 years, PFS for HRM patients with and without post-transplant therapy was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 59) versus 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) and in non-HRM patients with and without post-transplant therapy 55% (95% CI, 49 to 62) versus 39% (95% CI, 32 to 47); rates of OS for HRM patients with and without post-transplant therapy were 81% (95% CI, 70 to 90) versus 48% (95% CI, 30 to 65) compared with 88% (95% CI, 84 to 92) and 79% (95% CI, 73 to 85) in non-HRM patients with and without post-transplant therapy, respectively. Among patients receiving post-transplant therapy, there was no difference in OS between HRM and non-HRM (P = .08). In addition to HRM, higher stage, less than a CR pretransplant, lack of post-transplant therapy, and African American race were associated with worse OS. In conclusion, we show HRM patients achieve similar day 100 post-transplant responses compared with non-HRM patients, but these responses are not sustained. Post-transplant therapy appeared to improve the poor outcomes of HRM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1893-1899
Number of pages7
JournalBiology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Volume22
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

Keywords

  • Autologous HSCT
  • High risk
  • Maintenance
  • Multiple myeloma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Transplantation

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    Scott, E. C., Hari, P., Sharma, M., Le-Rademacher, J., Huang, J., Vogl, D., Abidi, M., Beitinjaneh, A., Fung, H., Ganguly, S., Hildebrandt, G., Holmberg, L., Kalaycio, M., Kumar, S., Kyle, R., Lazarus, H., Lee, C., Maziarz, R. T., Meehan, K., ... D'Souza, A. (2016). Post-Transplant Outcomes in High-Risk Compared with Non–High-Risk Multiple Myeloma: A CIBMTR Analysis. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 22(10), 1893-1899. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2016.07.007