Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 inhibitors selectively prevent the resumption of meiosis in primates. Methods: Immature oocytes (intact germinal vesicles) obtained from large pre-ovulatory follicles following ovarian stimulation in rhesus macaques were incubated with or without various doses of the PDE3 inhibitors, cilostamide, milrinone or ORG 9935, or a selective PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram. Oocytes were observed for germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) as an indicator of resumption of meiosis. Results: At 24 h, 72 of 121 (60%) control oocytes progressed to GVBD compared with 9/34 (27%, P < 0.01), 4/36 (11.1%, P < 0.01) and 0/28 (0%, P < 0.01) oocytes incubated with ORG 9935 at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 μmol/l respectively. Similar results were achieved at 24 h with 1.0 μmol/l cilostamide (2/24 oocytes, 8%, P < 0.01) and 100 μmol/l milrinone (2/32, 6%, P < 0.01). In contrast, no significant difference in GVBD was noted between control oocytes and those incubated with up to 100 μmol/l rolipram for 24 h (43/58, 74%) or 48 h (44/58, 76%). Conclusions: These experiments establish the specificity and dose-dependent ability of PDE3, but not PDE4, inhibitors to block resumption of meiosis in macaque oocytes in vitro. Thus, PDE3 inhibitors have potential use as contraceptives in primates.
- Non-human primate
- Phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Reproductive Medicine
- Obstetrics and Gynecology