Phalloplasty: Techniques and outcomes

Aaron L. Heston, Nick O. Esmonde, Daniel D. Dugi, Jens Urs Berli

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Phalloplasty is an exceptionally complicated reconstructive procedure that attempts to create a structure that is penis-like. As patient goals vary widely, it is helpful to think about phalloplasty as a modular set of procedures that can be combined, mixed and matched to meet the needs of each individual patient while also taking into account their anatomy. Each module—but particularly the shaft and penile urethra—can be performed using a variety of techniques. To date, there is no consensus among surgeons regarding the optimum staging of the reconstructive steps. Our primary goal is to outline the most frequently performed and reported options in phallic reconstruction and outline the various considerations that go into choosing a given sequence of procedures for the specific patient. The secondary goal of this article is to describe the complications common to each of those modules and how they interact when combined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)254-265
Number of pages12
JournalTranslational Andrology and Urology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019


  • Gender confirmation surgery (GCS)
  • Penis/surgery
  • Phalloplasty
  • Reconstructive surgical methods
  • Review
  • Surgical flaps

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'Phalloplasty: Techniques and outcomes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this