Persistent changes in arterial blood gases in fetal sheep

Sonnet Jonker, Debra Anderson, Lowell Davis, Q. Yang, J. J. Faber, George Giraud

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Two anaesthetic protocols were compared using pregnant sheep. In both groups of animals, anaesthesia was induced using an intravenous (i.v.) injection of diazepam and ketamine. The ewes were then intubated for positive pressure ventilation using 0.8 L/min of nitrous oxide and 2 L/min oxygen with 1.1-1.8% halothane. If the ewe showed any signs of awakening, one of two protocols was followed. First, the halothane concentration was increased to 2-3% until the ewe was completely anaesthetized. Second, the halothane concentration was not altered, but the ewe was given doses of i.v. diazepam (0.1 mg/kg) and ketamine (1 mg/kg) until again completely anaesthetized. At the completion of surgery, maternal recovery was rapid and similar between the two groups. However, five days after surgery, the fetal arterial Po2 and oxygen content of the fetuses receiving additional halothane (1.9±0.2 kPa and 4.4±1.0 mL/100 mL) were statistically significantly depressed when compared with the fetuses receiving additional diazepam and ketamine (2.9±0.1 kPa and 7.0±0.5 mL/100 mL). These results led us to conclude that certain anaesthetic protocols, in spite of good maternal recovery, can lead to deleterious effects upon the fetus that persist for at least five days after surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)326-330
Number of pages5
JournalLaboratory Animals
Volume42
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2008

Fingerprint

blood gases
halothane
Halothane
diazepam
ewes
Sheep
Ketamine
ketamine
Diazepam
Gases
fetus
sheep
Fetus
surgery
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures
anesthetics
Anesthetics
Mothers
Oxygen
oxygen

Keywords

  • Anaesthesia
  • Fetal surgery
  • Pregnancy
  • Sheep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Persistent changes in arterial blood gases in fetal sheep. / Jonker, Sonnet; Anderson, Debra; Davis, Lowell; Yang, Q.; Faber, J. J.; Giraud, George.

In: Laboratory Animals, Vol. 42, No. 3, 07.2008, p. 326-330.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jonker, Sonnet ; Anderson, Debra ; Davis, Lowell ; Yang, Q. ; Faber, J. J. ; Giraud, George. / Persistent changes in arterial blood gases in fetal sheep. In: Laboratory Animals. 2008 ; Vol. 42, No. 3. pp. 326-330.
@article{0dd1a463cc884309a3503c8bf3189471,
title = "Persistent changes in arterial blood gases in fetal sheep",
abstract = "Two anaesthetic protocols were compared using pregnant sheep. In both groups of animals, anaesthesia was induced using an intravenous (i.v.) injection of diazepam and ketamine. The ewes were then intubated for positive pressure ventilation using 0.8 L/min of nitrous oxide and 2 L/min oxygen with 1.1-1.8{\%} halothane. If the ewe showed any signs of awakening, one of two protocols was followed. First, the halothane concentration was increased to 2-3{\%} until the ewe was completely anaesthetized. Second, the halothane concentration was not altered, but the ewe was given doses of i.v. diazepam (0.1 mg/kg) and ketamine (1 mg/kg) until again completely anaesthetized. At the completion of surgery, maternal recovery was rapid and similar between the two groups. However, five days after surgery, the fetal arterial Po2 and oxygen content of the fetuses receiving additional halothane (1.9±0.2 kPa and 4.4±1.0 mL/100 mL) were statistically significantly depressed when compared with the fetuses receiving additional diazepam and ketamine (2.9±0.1 kPa and 7.0±0.5 mL/100 mL). These results led us to conclude that certain anaesthetic protocols, in spite of good maternal recovery, can lead to deleterious effects upon the fetus that persist for at least five days after surgery.",
keywords = "Anaesthesia, Fetal surgery, Pregnancy, Sheep",
author = "Sonnet Jonker and Debra Anderson and Lowell Davis and Q. Yang and Faber, {J. J.} and George Giraud",
year = "2008",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1258/la.2007.06005e",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "42",
pages = "326--330",
journal = "Laboratory Animals",
issn = "0023-6772",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Ltd",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Persistent changes in arterial blood gases in fetal sheep

AU - Jonker, Sonnet

AU - Anderson, Debra

AU - Davis, Lowell

AU - Yang, Q.

AU - Faber, J. J.

AU - Giraud, George

PY - 2008/7

Y1 - 2008/7

N2 - Two anaesthetic protocols were compared using pregnant sheep. In both groups of animals, anaesthesia was induced using an intravenous (i.v.) injection of diazepam and ketamine. The ewes were then intubated for positive pressure ventilation using 0.8 L/min of nitrous oxide and 2 L/min oxygen with 1.1-1.8% halothane. If the ewe showed any signs of awakening, one of two protocols was followed. First, the halothane concentration was increased to 2-3% until the ewe was completely anaesthetized. Second, the halothane concentration was not altered, but the ewe was given doses of i.v. diazepam (0.1 mg/kg) and ketamine (1 mg/kg) until again completely anaesthetized. At the completion of surgery, maternal recovery was rapid and similar between the two groups. However, five days after surgery, the fetal arterial Po2 and oxygen content of the fetuses receiving additional halothane (1.9±0.2 kPa and 4.4±1.0 mL/100 mL) were statistically significantly depressed when compared with the fetuses receiving additional diazepam and ketamine (2.9±0.1 kPa and 7.0±0.5 mL/100 mL). These results led us to conclude that certain anaesthetic protocols, in spite of good maternal recovery, can lead to deleterious effects upon the fetus that persist for at least five days after surgery.

AB - Two anaesthetic protocols were compared using pregnant sheep. In both groups of animals, anaesthesia was induced using an intravenous (i.v.) injection of diazepam and ketamine. The ewes were then intubated for positive pressure ventilation using 0.8 L/min of nitrous oxide and 2 L/min oxygen with 1.1-1.8% halothane. If the ewe showed any signs of awakening, one of two protocols was followed. First, the halothane concentration was increased to 2-3% until the ewe was completely anaesthetized. Second, the halothane concentration was not altered, but the ewe was given doses of i.v. diazepam (0.1 mg/kg) and ketamine (1 mg/kg) until again completely anaesthetized. At the completion of surgery, maternal recovery was rapid and similar between the two groups. However, five days after surgery, the fetal arterial Po2 and oxygen content of the fetuses receiving additional halothane (1.9±0.2 kPa and 4.4±1.0 mL/100 mL) were statistically significantly depressed when compared with the fetuses receiving additional diazepam and ketamine (2.9±0.1 kPa and 7.0±0.5 mL/100 mL). These results led us to conclude that certain anaesthetic protocols, in spite of good maternal recovery, can lead to deleterious effects upon the fetus that persist for at least five days after surgery.

KW - Anaesthesia

KW - Fetal surgery

KW - Pregnancy

KW - Sheep

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=47749096320&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=47749096320&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1258/la.2007.06005e

DO - 10.1258/la.2007.06005e

M3 - Article

C2 - 18625587

AN - SCOPUS:47749096320

VL - 42

SP - 326

EP - 330

JO - Laboratory Animals

JF - Laboratory Animals

SN - 0023-6772

IS - 3

ER -