Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: A family of lipid-activated transcription factors

Steven D. Clarke, Philippe Thuillier, Rebecca A. Baillie, Xiaoming Sha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear transcription factors that belong to the steroid receptor superfamily. This family of PPARs includes PPARα, PPARδ, PPARγ1, and PPARγ2. These PPARs are related to the T3 and vitamin D3 receptors and bind to a hexameric direct repeat as a heterodimeric complex with retinoid receptor Xα. PPARs regulate the expression of a wide array of genes that encode proteins involved in lipid metabolism, energy balance, eicosanoid signaling, cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis. A unique feature of these steroid-like receptors is that the physiologic ligands for PPARs appear to be fatty acids from the n-6 and n-3 families of fatty acids and their respective eicosanoid products. This review describes the characteristics, regulation, and gene targets for PPARs and relates their effects on gene expression to physiologic outcomes that affect lipid and glucose metabolism, thermogenesis, atherosclerosis, and cell differentiation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)566-571
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Differentiation
  • Fat cells
  • Fatty acid synthase
  • Fatty acids
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
  • Retinoid receptor Xα
  • Review
  • Transcription factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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