Pediatric pes planus: A stateofthe-art review

James B. Carr, Scott Yang, Leigh Ann Lather

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Flatfoot (pes planus) is common in infants and children and often resolves by adolescence. Thus, flatfoot is described as physiologic because it is usually flexible, painless, and of no functional consequence. In rare instances, flatfoot can become painful or rigid, which may be a sign of underlying foot pathology, including arthritis or tarsal coalition. Despite its prevalence, there is no standard definition for pediatric flatfoot. Furthermore, there are no large, prospective studies that compare the natural history of idiopathic, flexible flat feet throughout development in response to various treatments. The available literature does not elucidate which patients are at risk for developing pain and disability as young adults. Current evidence suggests that it is safe and appropriate to simply observe an asymptomatic child with flat feet. Painful flexible flatfoot may benefit from orthopedic intervention, such as physical therapy, bracing, or even a surgical procedure. Orthotics, although generally unproven to alter the course of flexible flatfoot, may provide relief of pain when present. Surgical procedures include Achilles tendon lengthening, bone-cutting procedures that rearrange the alignment of the foot (osteotomies), fusion of joints (arthrodesis), or insertion of a silicone or metal cap into the sinus tarsi to establish a medial foot arch (arthroereisis). It is important for a general pediatrician to know when a referral to an orthopedic specialist is indicated and which treatments may be offered to the patient. Updated awareness of the current evidence regarding pediatric flatfoot helps the provider confidently and appropriately counsel patients and families.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere20151230
JournalPediatrics
Volume137
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016

Fingerprint

Flatfoot
Art
Pediatrics
Foot
Orthopedics
Tenotomy
Pain
Achilles Tendon
Heel
Arthrodesis
Silicones
Osteotomy
Natural History
Arthritis
Young Adult
Therapeutics
Referral and Consultation
Joints
Metals
Prospective Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Medicine(all)
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Pediatric pes planus : A stateofthe-art review. / Carr, James B.; Yang, Scott; Lather, Leigh Ann.

In: Pediatrics, Vol. 137, No. 3, e20151230, 01.03.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Carr, James B. ; Yang, Scott ; Lather, Leigh Ann. / Pediatric pes planus : A stateofthe-art review. In: Pediatrics. 2016 ; Vol. 137, No. 3.
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