Parkinson’s disease in 65 pairs of twins and in a set of quadruplets

Christopher D. Ward, Roger C. Duvoisin, Susan E. Ince, John D. Nutt, Roswell Eldridge, Donald B. Calne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

325 Scopus citations


Among 43 monozygotic (MZ) and 19 dizygotic (DZ) pairs in which an index case had definite Parkinson’s disease (PD), only one MZ pair was definitely concordant for PD. When pairs with questionable clinical features were included, 4 of 48 MZ and 1 of 19 DZ pairs were concordant. The frequency of PD in MZ cotwins of index cases with PD was similar to that expected in an unrelated control group matched for age and sex. Although we were unable to identify a single environmental agent, we conclude that the major factors in the etiology of PD are nongenetic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)815-824
Number of pages10
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1983

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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