Paradoxes of adherence and drug resistance to HIV antiretroviral therapy

David R. Bangsberg, Andrew R. Moss, Steven G. Deeks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

212 Scopus citations


Public health debates about providing HIV antiretroviral therapy to impoverished populations have centred on the relationship between adherence and risk of drug resistance. Recent data indicate that each antiretroviral therapeutic class has a unique adherence-resistance relationship. Resistance to single protease inhibitor therapy occurs most frequently at moderate to high levels of adherence, resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy occurs at low to moderate levels of adherence, and resistance to ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor therapy is most likely to occur at middle ranges of adherence. These dynamic relationships should be considered in balancing the individual and public health benefits of therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)696-699
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Drug users
  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • Protease inhibitors
  • Public health
  • Resource-constrained countries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'Paradoxes of adherence and drug resistance to HIV antiretroviral therapy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this