Renal transplant candidates are at increased risk for future cardiac death - approximately 5-10% per year. Invasive testing by coronary angiography has been used to assess the cardiac risk. However this is expensive and carries its own risks to residual renal function as well as cardiac morbidity and mortality. Screening of patients by clinical risk factors may obviate the need for invasive or noninvasive testing in a significant number (approximately 50%) of the renal transplant candidates. Further noninvasive testing with exercise or dipyridamole thallium-201 stress testing in the high-risk patients may be a more cost-effective screening test than coronary angiography. Other noninvasive testing modalities may also prove useful in the future but have not yet been proven in this unique patient population. The characterization of a renal transplant candidate’s cardiac risk may assist the clinicians in prioritizing the candidate for transplantation. Recent evidence also suggests that revascularization of the diabetic renal transplant candidate with significant coronary artery disease (which is approachable by angioplasty or bypass surgery) may modify their cardiac risk. Randomized studies of the efficacy of revascularization or medical therapy interventions in the nondiabetic renal transplant candidate with coronary artery disease have not been performed.