Neuronal cell killing by the envelope protein of HIV and its prevention by vasoactive intestinal peptide

Douglas E. Brenneman, Gary Westbrook, Sandra P. Fitzgerald, David L. Ennist, Karen L. Elkins, Michael R. Ruff, Candace B. Pert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The clinical manifestations of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) often include neuropsychiatric and neurological deficits1-4, including early memory loss and progressive dementia. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the aetiological agent of AIDS, is probably carried by infected macrophages in the central nervous system5-7. The virus enters cells by binding its envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the CD4 antigen8-10 present on brain and immune cells11-13. From the data reported in this paper, we now suggest that the neuronal deficits associated with HIV may not be entirely a result of infectivity, but that gp120 shed from HIV14-16 could directly produce the neuropathology as a result of its interference with endogenous neurotrophic substances. It is known that an analogue of a sequence contained in vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) occurs in all known sequenced gp120 isolates17-20 and that VIP is important for neuronal survival in cell culture21-23. Here we show that purified gp120 from two diverse HIV isolates and a recombinant gp120 from a third isolate were all potent in specifically producing significant neuronal cell death in dissociated hippocampal cultures derived from fetal mice, and that this could be reduced by monoclonal antibodies against the murine24 CD4 antigen and completely antagonized by VIP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)639-642
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume335
Issue number6191
StatePublished - 1988
Externally publishedYes

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus env Gene Products
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
HIV
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
CD4 Antigens
Memory Disorders
Dementia
Cell Survival
Glycoproteins
Cell Death
Macrophages
Monoclonal Antibodies
Viruses
Brain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Brenneman, D. E., Westbrook, G., Fitzgerald, S. P., Ennist, D. L., Elkins, K. L., Ruff, M. R., & Pert, C. B. (1988). Neuronal cell killing by the envelope protein of HIV and its prevention by vasoactive intestinal peptide. Nature, 335(6191), 639-642.

Neuronal cell killing by the envelope protein of HIV and its prevention by vasoactive intestinal peptide. / Brenneman, Douglas E.; Westbrook, Gary; Fitzgerald, Sandra P.; Ennist, David L.; Elkins, Karen L.; Ruff, Michael R.; Pert, Candace B.

In: Nature, Vol. 335, No. 6191, 1988, p. 639-642.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Brenneman, DE, Westbrook, G, Fitzgerald, SP, Ennist, DL, Elkins, KL, Ruff, MR & Pert, CB 1988, 'Neuronal cell killing by the envelope protein of HIV and its prevention by vasoactive intestinal peptide', Nature, vol. 335, no. 6191, pp. 639-642.
Brenneman DE, Westbrook G, Fitzgerald SP, Ennist DL, Elkins KL, Ruff MR et al. Neuronal cell killing by the envelope protein of HIV and its prevention by vasoactive intestinal peptide. Nature. 1988;335(6191):639-642.
Brenneman, Douglas E. ; Westbrook, Gary ; Fitzgerald, Sandra P. ; Ennist, David L. ; Elkins, Karen L. ; Ruff, Michael R. ; Pert, Candace B. / Neuronal cell killing by the envelope protein of HIV and its prevention by vasoactive intestinal peptide. In: Nature. 1988 ; Vol. 335, No. 6191. pp. 639-642.
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