Epidemiological and clinical trial data indicate that at least some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Advancing age is the most robust risk factor for AD. If NSAIDs mitigate the initiation of AD by affecting processes of aging, and if the target of NSAIDs are cyclooxygenases (COX), then COX activity would be hypothesized to increase with advancing age in brain regions affected by AD. We tested this hypothesis in mouse cerebrum by measuring two outcomes of increased COX activity, prostaglandin (PG) levels and markers of oxidative damage. Our results showed that frontal cortical PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1α levels were significantly increased at 14 months compared to 2 months, but that frontal cortical levels of these PGs at 26 months returned to levels observed at 2 months of age. At all ages, 2-week treatment with indomethacin (14 μg/ml drinking water, or approximately 2.2 mg/kg per day) equally suppressed frontal cortical levels of both PGs. In contrast, basal levels of oxidative damage to cerebral cortex did not increase in mice aged up to 26 months, and indomethacin treatment did not significantly alter basal levels of oxidative damage as assayed by F2-isoprostanes or protein carbonyls. These results suggest that indomethacin may influence the initiation of AD by reducing cerebral PG elevation that may occur in middle age, but that it is unlikely to have a direct effect on levels of oxidative damage.
- Brain aging
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
- Oxidative damage
- Protein carbonyl
ASJC Scopus subject areas