Molecular imaging reveals rapid reduction of endothelial activation in early atherosclerosis with apocynin independent of antioxidative properties

Elham Khanicheh, Qi Yue, Aris Xie, Martina Mitterhuber, Lifen Xu, Michika Mochizuki, Youssef Daali, Vincent Jaquet, Karl Heinz Krause, Zaverio M. Ruggeri, Gabriela M. Kuster, Jonathan Lindner, Beat A. Kaufmann

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    31 Scopus citations


    Objective-Antioxidative drugs continue to be developed for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Apocynin is an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor with anti-inflammatory properties. We used contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging to assess whether short-term apocynin therapy in atherosclerosis reduces vascular oxidative stress and endothelial activation Approach and Results-Genetically modified mice with early atherosclerosis were studied at baseline and after 7 days of therapy with apocynin (4 mg/kg per day IP) or saline. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging of the aorta was performed with microbubbles targeted to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1; MBV), to platelet glycoprotein Ibα (MBPl), and control microbubbles (MBCtr). Aortic vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 was measured using Western blot. Aortic reactive oxygen species generation was measured using a lucigenin assay. Hydroethidine oxidation was used to assess aortic superoxide generation. Baseline signal for MBV (1.3±0.3 AU) and MBPl (1.5±0.5 AU) was higher than for MBCtr (0.5±0.2 AU; P

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)2187-2192
    Number of pages6
    JournalArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
    Issue number9
    Publication statusPublished - Sep 2013



    • acetovanillone
    • atherosclerosis
    • microbubbles
    • molecular imaging
    • oxidative stress

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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