Background: Breast cancers in recently postpartum women may have worse outcomes, but studies examining tumor molecular features by pregnancy recency have shown conflicting results. Methods: This analysis used Carolina Breast Cancer Study data to examine clinical and molecular tumor features among women less than 50 years of age who were recently (≤10 years prior) or remotely (>10 years prior) postpartum, or nulliparous. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable models. Results: Recently postpartum women (N = 618) were more frequently lymph node-positive [POR (95% CI): 1.66 (1.26-2.19)], estrogen receptor (ER)-negative [1.37 (1.02-1.83)], and IHC-based triple negative [1.57 (1.00-2.47)] compared with nulliparous (N = 360) women. Some differences were identified between recent versus remotely postpartum; smaller tumor size [0.67 (0.52-0.86)], p53 wildtype [0.53 (0.36-0.77)], and non-basal-like phenotype [0.53 (0.33-0.84)] were more common among recently postpartum. Recently postpartum (vs. nulliparous) had significant enrichment for adaptive immunity, T cells, B cells,CD8 T cells, activated CD8T cells/ natural killer (NK) cells, and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and higher overall immune cell scores. These differences were attenuated in remotely (compared with recently) postpartum women. Conclusions: These results suggest a dominant effect of parity (vs. nulliparity) and a lesser effect of pregnancy recency on tumor molecular features, although tumor immune microenvironments were altered in association with pregnancy recency.
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