Melatonin administration to blind people: phase advances and entrainment.

Robert Sack, Alfred Lewy, M. L. Blood, J. Stevenson, L. D. Keith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

197 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to test the phase-shifting and entraining effects of melatonin in human subjects. Five totally blind men were found in a previous study to have free-running endogenous melatonin rhythms. Their rhythms were remarkably stable, so that any deviation from the predicted phase was readily detectable. After determination of their free-running period and phase, they were given exogenous melatonin (5 mg) at bedtime (2200 hr) for 3 weeks, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The effects on the endogenous melatonin rhythm were assessed at intervals ranging from several days to 2 weeks. Exogenous administration of melatonin phase-advanced their endogenous melatonin rhythms. In three of the subjects, cortisol was shown to be phase-shifted in tandem with the melatonin rhythm. A sixth subject [one of the coauthors (JS)] was previously found to have free-running cortisol and temperature rhythms and was plagued by recurrent insomnia and daytime sleepiness. He had tried unsuccessfully to entrain his rhythms for over 10 years. After he took melatonin (7 mg at 2100 hr), his insomnia and sleepiness resolved. Determination of his endogenous melatonin rhythm after about a year of treatment demonstrated endogenous rhythms that appeared normally entrained. The treatment of blind people with free-running rhythms has many advantages for demonstrating chronobiological effects of hormones or drugs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)249-261
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Biological Rhythms
Volume6
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1991

Fingerprint

melatonin
Melatonin
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
Running
cortisol
Hydrocortisone
placebos
Placebos
hormones
Hormones
drugs
Temperature
Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Sack, R., Lewy, A., Blood, M. L., Stevenson, J., & Keith, L. D. (1991). Melatonin administration to blind people: phase advances and entrainment. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 6(3), 249-261.

Melatonin administration to blind people : phase advances and entrainment. / Sack, Robert; Lewy, Alfred; Blood, M. L.; Stevenson, J.; Keith, L. D.

In: Journal of Biological Rhythms, Vol. 6, No. 3, 09.1991, p. 249-261.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sack, R, Lewy, A, Blood, ML, Stevenson, J & Keith, LD 1991, 'Melatonin administration to blind people: phase advances and entrainment.', Journal of Biological Rhythms, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 249-261.
Sack R, Lewy A, Blood ML, Stevenson J, Keith LD. Melatonin administration to blind people: phase advances and entrainment. Journal of Biological Rhythms. 1991 Sep;6(3):249-261.
Sack, Robert ; Lewy, Alfred ; Blood, M. L. ; Stevenson, J. ; Keith, L. D. / Melatonin administration to blind people : phase advances and entrainment. In: Journal of Biological Rhythms. 1991 ; Vol. 6, No. 3. pp. 249-261.
@article{5133eee053b84ff49c55b4e89f82623f,
title = "Melatonin administration to blind people: phase advances and entrainment.",
abstract = "The purpose of this study was to test the phase-shifting and entraining effects of melatonin in human subjects. Five totally blind men were found in a previous study to have free-running endogenous melatonin rhythms. Their rhythms were remarkably stable, so that any deviation from the predicted phase was readily detectable. After determination of their free-running period and phase, they were given exogenous melatonin (5 mg) at bedtime (2200 hr) for 3 weeks, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The effects on the endogenous melatonin rhythm were assessed at intervals ranging from several days to 2 weeks. Exogenous administration of melatonin phase-advanced their endogenous melatonin rhythms. In three of the subjects, cortisol was shown to be phase-shifted in tandem with the melatonin rhythm. A sixth subject [one of the coauthors (JS)] was previously found to have free-running cortisol and temperature rhythms and was plagued by recurrent insomnia and daytime sleepiness. He had tried unsuccessfully to entrain his rhythms for over 10 years. After he took melatonin (7 mg at 2100 hr), his insomnia and sleepiness resolved. Determination of his endogenous melatonin rhythm after about a year of treatment demonstrated endogenous rhythms that appeared normally entrained. The treatment of blind people with free-running rhythms has many advantages for demonstrating chronobiological effects of hormones or drugs.",
author = "Robert Sack and Alfred Lewy and Blood, {M. L.} and J. Stevenson and Keith, {L. D.}",
year = "1991",
month = "9",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "6",
pages = "249--261",
journal = "Journal of Biological Rhythms",
issn = "0748-7304",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Melatonin administration to blind people

T2 - phase advances and entrainment.

AU - Sack, Robert

AU - Lewy, Alfred

AU - Blood, M. L.

AU - Stevenson, J.

AU - Keith, L. D.

PY - 1991/9

Y1 - 1991/9

N2 - The purpose of this study was to test the phase-shifting and entraining effects of melatonin in human subjects. Five totally blind men were found in a previous study to have free-running endogenous melatonin rhythms. Their rhythms were remarkably stable, so that any deviation from the predicted phase was readily detectable. After determination of their free-running period and phase, they were given exogenous melatonin (5 mg) at bedtime (2200 hr) for 3 weeks, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The effects on the endogenous melatonin rhythm were assessed at intervals ranging from several days to 2 weeks. Exogenous administration of melatonin phase-advanced their endogenous melatonin rhythms. In three of the subjects, cortisol was shown to be phase-shifted in tandem with the melatonin rhythm. A sixth subject [one of the coauthors (JS)] was previously found to have free-running cortisol and temperature rhythms and was plagued by recurrent insomnia and daytime sleepiness. He had tried unsuccessfully to entrain his rhythms for over 10 years. After he took melatonin (7 mg at 2100 hr), his insomnia and sleepiness resolved. Determination of his endogenous melatonin rhythm after about a year of treatment demonstrated endogenous rhythms that appeared normally entrained. The treatment of blind people with free-running rhythms has many advantages for demonstrating chronobiological effects of hormones or drugs.

AB - The purpose of this study was to test the phase-shifting and entraining effects of melatonin in human subjects. Five totally blind men were found in a previous study to have free-running endogenous melatonin rhythms. Their rhythms were remarkably stable, so that any deviation from the predicted phase was readily detectable. After determination of their free-running period and phase, they were given exogenous melatonin (5 mg) at bedtime (2200 hr) for 3 weeks, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The effects on the endogenous melatonin rhythm were assessed at intervals ranging from several days to 2 weeks. Exogenous administration of melatonin phase-advanced their endogenous melatonin rhythms. In three of the subjects, cortisol was shown to be phase-shifted in tandem with the melatonin rhythm. A sixth subject [one of the coauthors (JS)] was previously found to have free-running cortisol and temperature rhythms and was plagued by recurrent insomnia and daytime sleepiness. He had tried unsuccessfully to entrain his rhythms for over 10 years. After he took melatonin (7 mg at 2100 hr), his insomnia and sleepiness resolved. Determination of his endogenous melatonin rhythm after about a year of treatment demonstrated endogenous rhythms that appeared normally entrained. The treatment of blind people with free-running rhythms has many advantages for demonstrating chronobiological effects of hormones or drugs.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026217050&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026217050&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 1773095

AN - SCOPUS:0026217050

VL - 6

SP - 249

EP - 261

JO - Journal of Biological Rhythms

JF - Journal of Biological Rhythms

SN - 0748-7304

IS - 3

ER -