Medicaid’s Impact on Chronic Disease Biomarkers: A Cohort Study of Community Health Center Patients

Brigit Hatch, Miguel Marino, Marie Killerby, Heather Angier, Megan Hoopes, Steffani Bailey, John Heintzman, Jean P. O’Malley, Jennifer Devoe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Understanding the impact of health insurance is critical, particularly in the era of Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion. The electronic health record (EHR) provides new opportunities to quantify health outcomes. Objective: To assess changes in biomarkers of chronic disease among community health center (CHC) patients who gained Medicaid coverage with the Oregon Medicaid expansion (2008–2011). Design: Prospective cohort. Patients were followed for 24 months, and rate of mean biomarker change was calculated. Time to a controlled follow-up measurement was compared using Cox regression models. Setting/Patients: Using EHR data from OCHIN (a non-profit network of CHCs) linked to state Medicaid data, we identified three cohorts of patients with uncontrolled chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia). Within these cohorts, we included patients who gained Medicaid coverage along with a propensity score-matched comparison group who remained uninsured (diabetes n = 608; hypertension n = 1244; hyperlipidemia n = 546). Main Measures: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) for the diabetes cohort, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) for the hypertension cohort, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) for the hyperlipidemia cohort. Key Results: All cohorts improved over time. Compared to matched uninsured patients, adults in the diabetes and hypertension cohorts who gained Medicaid coverage were significantly more likely to have a follow-up controlled measurement (hazard ratio [HR] =1.26, p = 0.020; HR = 1.35, p < 0.001, respectively). No significant difference was observed in the hyperlipidemia cohort (HR = 1.09, p = 0.392). Conclusions: OCHIN patients with uncontrolled chronic conditions experienced objective health improvements over time. In two of three chronic disease cohorts, those who gained Medicaid coverage were more likely to achieve a controlled measurement than those who remained uninsured. These findings demonstrate the effective care provided by CHCs and the importance of health insurance coverage within a usual source of care setting. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02355132 [https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02355132]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of General Internal Medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Apr 3 2017

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Community Health Centers
Medicaid
Chronic Disease
Cohort Studies
Biomarkers
Hyperlipidemias
Hypertension
Electronic Health Records
Health Insurance
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
Blood Pressure
Propensity Score
Insurance Coverage
Health
LDL Lipoproteins
Proportional Hazards Models
Hemoglobins
Research Design
Clinical Trials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Medicaid’s Impact on Chronic Disease Biomarkers : A Cohort Study of Community Health Center Patients. / Hatch, Brigit; Marino, Miguel; Killerby, Marie; Angier, Heather; Hoopes, Megan; Bailey, Steffani; Heintzman, John; O’Malley, Jean P.; Devoe, Jennifer.

In: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 03.04.2017, p. 1-8.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Understanding the impact of health insurance is critical, particularly in the era of Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion. The electronic health record (EHR) provides new opportunities to quantify health outcomes. Objective: To assess changes in biomarkers of chronic disease among community health center (CHC) patients who gained Medicaid coverage with the Oregon Medicaid expansion (2008–2011). Design: Prospective cohort. Patients were followed for 24 months, and rate of mean biomarker change was calculated. Time to a controlled follow-up measurement was compared using Cox regression models. Setting/Patients: Using EHR data from OCHIN (a non-profit network of CHCs) linked to state Medicaid data, we identified three cohorts of patients with uncontrolled chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia). Within these cohorts, we included patients who gained Medicaid coverage along with a propensity score-matched comparison group who remained uninsured (diabetes n = 608; hypertension n = 1244; hyperlipidemia n = 546). Main Measures: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) for the diabetes cohort, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) for the hypertension cohort, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) for the hyperlipidemia cohort. Key Results: All cohorts improved over time. Compared to matched uninsured patients, adults in the diabetes and hypertension cohorts who gained Medicaid coverage were significantly more likely to have a follow-up controlled measurement (hazard ratio [HR] =1.26, p = 0.020; HR = 1.35, p < 0.001, respectively). No significant difference was observed in the hyperlipidemia cohort (HR = 1.09, p = 0.392). Conclusions: OCHIN patients with uncontrolled chronic conditions experienced objective health improvements over time. In two of three chronic disease cohorts, those who gained Medicaid coverage were more likely to achieve a controlled measurement than those who remained uninsured. These findings demonstrate the effective care provided by CHCs and the importance of health insurance coverage within a usual source of care setting. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02355132 [https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02355132]",
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AU - Marino, Miguel

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AU - Angier, Heather

AU - Hoopes, Megan

AU - Bailey, Steffani

AU - Heintzman, John

AU - O’Malley, Jean P.

AU - Devoe, Jennifer

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