Marrow Stimulation Has Relatively Inferior Patient-Reported Outcomes in Cartilage Restoration Surgery of the Knee: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Torgom Abraamyan, Alicia J. Johnson, Jack Wiedrick, Dennis C. Crawford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Multiple cartilage repair techniques are available for chondral defects in the knee. Optimal treatment is controversial. Purpose: To evaluate change from baseline in the 5 Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscales among different cartilage repair techniques of the knee. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 1A. Methods: Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for randomized controlled trials with minimum 1 year follow-up reporting change from baseline KOOS (delta KOOS) subscale values. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed. A meta-analysis was performed on the following surgery types: microfracture (Mfx); augmented microfracture techniques (Mfx+Augment); and culture-based therapies, including autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI). A random-effects metaregression model was used. Results: A total of 14 randomized trials with a total of 775 patients were included. The KOOS Sport and Recreation (Sport) and KOOS Quality of Life (QOL) were the 2 most responsive subscales after operative intervention. Outcomes from Mfx and Mfx+Augment were not different in any of the 5 KOOS subscales (minimum P >.3). The mean delta KOOS Sport after ACI/MACI was 9.9 points greater than after Mfx (P =.021) and 11.7 points greater than after Mfx+Augment (P =.027). Longer follow-up time correlated with greater delta KOOS Sport (P =.028). Larger body mass index led to greater delta KOOS QOL (P =.045). Larger cartilage defect size correlated with greater delta KOOS Pain and KOOS Activities of Daily Living scores (P =.023 and P =.002, respectively). Conclusion: The KOOS Sport and QOL were the most responsive subscales after cartilage restoration surgery of the knee. Culture-based therapies (ACI/MACI) led to clinically relevant improvements in the KOOS Sport score compared with marrow stimulation and may be a more appropriate treatment in younger and more active individuals. There were no benefits to Mfx+Augment over Mfx alone in any of the KOOS subscales.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • articular cartilage resurfacing
  • autologous chondrocyte implantation
  • cartilage injury
  • knee articular cartilage
  • microfracture
  • systematic review and meta-analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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