Purpose: Although early death from perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) after vascular surgery is well established, long-term outcome in patients surviving PMI is unknown. This prospective study was designed to determine cardiac outcome and survival rates in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic nonfatal PMI associated with peripheral vascular surgery. Methods: During a 36-month period for 1989 to 1992, all patients undergoing vascular surgery at our institution were monitored for PMI with serial creatine kinase and myocardial band isoenzymes and electrocardiography. PMIs were classified as symptomatic (associated with chest pain, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, or hypotension) or asymptomatic (electrocardiographic changes and/or elevated creatine kinase and myocardial band isoenzymes). Patients with PMI were then prospectively monitored and compared for late survival, with control patients undergoing vascular surgery without PMI during the same interval. Results: During the study period 1561 major peripheral vascular procedures were performed. There were 47 PMIs (3.0%). Eleven (0.7%) PMIs were fatal, 31 were nonfatal, and five other patients with PMI died during operation of non-heart-related causes. Eight of 31 patients with nonfatal PMI had a "chemical PMI" with creatine kinase and myocardial band isoenzyme elevation as the sole indicator of PMI. During follow-up (mean 27.7 months), there was a higher incidence of both subsequent myocardial infarction and coronary artery revascularization among the patients with nonfatal PMI compared with control subjects (p <0.05); however, survival for patients with nonfatal PMI at 1 and 4 years (80% and 51%) did not differ from that of control patients (90% and 60%) (p > 0.05). Patients with "chemical PMI" had similar patterns of subsequent myocardial infarction and coronary intervention as control patients. Conclusions: Patients surviving nonfatal PMI after peripheral vascular surgery have a higher incidence of subsequent adverse cardiac events and coronary artery revascularization than patients undergoing vascular surgery without PMI, but they have similar survival rates at 1 and 4 years. Patients in the enzyme-only PMI group have a similar outcome compared with control subjects suggesting that a perioperative "chemical MI" may not be a significant clinical event.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine