This study aims to identify the temporal kinetics of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MRI in patients with human papillomavirus-associated (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients were enrolled under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol as part of an ongoing prospective clinical trial. All patients underwent two MRI studies: a baseline scan before chemoradiotherapy and a mid-treatment scan 3-4 weeks after treatment initiation. Parametric maps representing pure diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were generated. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to assess the temporal variation of IVIM metrics. Bayesian quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) was used to evaluate the extent to which mid-treatment changes in IVIM metrics could be combined to predict sites that would achieve complete response (CR) in multivariate analysis. Thirty-one patients were included in the final analysis with 59 lesions. Pretreatment ADC and D values of the CR lesions (n=19) were significantly lower than those of non-CR lesions (n=33). Mid-treatment ADC, D and f values were significantly higher (p<0.0001) than pretreatment values for all lesions. Each increase in normalized ΔADC of size 0.1 yielded a 1.45-fold increase in the odds of CR (p<0.0003), each increase in normalized ΔD of size 0.1 yielded a 1.53-fold increase in the odds of CR (p<0.0002), and each unit increase in Δf yielded a 2.29-fold increase in the odds of CR (p<0.02). Combined ΔD and ΔADC were integrated into a multivariate prediction model and attained an AUC of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.96), as well as a sensitivity of 0.63, specificity of 0.85 and accuracy of 0.78, under leave-one-out cross-validation. In conclusion, IVIM is feasible and potentially useful in the prediction and assessment of the early response of HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma to chemoradiotherapy.
- HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer
- Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging
- Response assessment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging