BACKGROUND. The rate of durable responses in embryonal and certain germ cell tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) is unsatisfactory. Intraarterial chemotherapy and osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption (IA/BBBD) increases drug delivery to the CNS. METHODS. Data of patients treated with carboplatin or methotrexate-based IA/BBBD on prospective phase 2 trials conducted at 3 centers were collected. Study outcomes included overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), and toxicity. RESULTS. Fifty-four patients were treated. Twenty-seven patients received IA/BBBD as salvage treatment. The median OS was 2.8 years for all patients, 2.5 years for supratentorial and disseminated primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs, n = 29), 1.7 years for medulloblastomas (n = 12), and 5.4 years for germ cell tumors (n = 13). OS and TTP for all patients were better with a Karnofsky Performance Status ≥70% (P = .0013 and .0070) and IA/BBBD as first-line treatment (P = .0059 and .029). In PNETs, OS was higher with pineal location (P = .045) and IA/BBBD as first-line treatment (P = .0036), and TTP was improved with radiotherapy before IA/BBBD (P = .036) and IA/BBBD as first-line treatment (P = .0079). Seventeen of 54 patients (31%) are alive, and 16 are alive at 4+ to 18+ years. Three survivors were not treated with radiotherapy and 4 were treated with focal radiotherapy only. The patients who were not irradiated did not develop dementia. CONCLUSIONS. Survival and toxicity data appear promising, considering the cohort's adverse prognostic profile. A plateau in survival curves suggests a cure for some patients. Long-term survival may be achieved with focal or reduced-dose radiotherapy in some IA/BBBD patients.
- Blood-brain barrier disruption
- Embryonal tumors
- Germ cell tumors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research