Interpretation of flood-illuminated adaptive optics images in subjects with Retinitis Pigmentosa

Michael J. Gale, Shu Feng, Hope E. Titus, Travis B. Smith, Mark E. Pennesi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

12 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to correlate features on flood-illuminated adaptive optics (AO) images with color fundus, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We imaged 39 subjects diagnosed with RP using the rtx1TM flood-illuminated AO camera from Imagine Eyes (Orsay, France). We observed a correlation between hyper-autofluoresence changes on FAF, disruption of the interdigitation zone (IZ) on SD-OCT and loss of reflective cone profiles on AO. Four main patterns of cone-reflectivity were seen on AO: presumed healthy cone mosaics, hypo-reflective blurred cone-like structures, higher frequency disorganized hyper-reflective spots, and lower frequency hypo-reflective spots. These regions were correlated to progressive phases of cone photoreceptor degeneration observed using SD-OCT and FAF. These results help provide interpretation of en face images obtained by flood-illuminated AO in subjects with RP. However, significant ambiguity remains as to what truly constitutes a cone, especially in areas of degeneration. With further refinements in technology, flood illuminated AO imaging has the potential to provide rapid, standardized, longitudinal and lower cost imaging in patients with retinal degeneration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
PublisherSpringer New York LLC
Number of pages7
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019


  • Cone photoreceptors
  • Flood
  • Illuminated adaptive optics
  • Multimodal imaging
  • Retinal degeneration
  • Retinitis pigmentosa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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