Patients with severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often become critically ill requiring intensive care unit (ICU) management. These individuals are at risk for developing ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW), a multifactorial condition in which polyneuropathy, myopathy, and/or disuse muscle atrophy result in motor weakness. This weakness is thought to contribute to the long-term functional disability frequently observed in survivors of critical illness. This review discusses the current evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, risk factors, and rehabilitation-specific management of ICUAW in patients with COVID-19. Because of the novelty of COVID-19, the exact prevalence of ICUAW is not well delineated among COVID-19 patients. However, ICUAW has been reported in this population with retrospective studies showing weakness occurring in up to 45.5% of patients with severe COVID-19. There are multiple risk factors for developing ICUAW among COVID-19 patients, including premorbid health status, sepsis, multiple organ failure, mechanical ventilation, immobilization, neuromuscular blockade, corticosteroid use, and glycemic control. ICUAW is more likely to occur after prolonged mechanical ventilation and long hospital stays and can be diagnosed with manual muscle and electrodiagnostic testing. Although the long-term sequela of COVID-19 after ICU stays is not fully studied, increasing evidence indicates significant risk for this population developing long-term functional impairments. Establishing postacute rehabilitation programs for COVID-19 survivors will be important for recovery of endurance, mobility, and function.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
- Clinical Neurology