Purpose To examine the influence of fluorescein angiography (FA) on the diagnosis and management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Design Prospective cohort study. Participants Nine recognized ROP experts (3 pediatric ophthalmologists and 6 retina specialists) interpreted 32 sets (16 color fundus photographs and 16 color fundus photographs paired with the corresponding FA images) of wide-angle retinal images from infants with ROP. Methods All experts independently reviewed the 32 image sets on a secure website and provided a diagnosis and management plan for the case presented, first based on color fundus photographs alone, and then based on color fundus photographs and corresponding FA images. Main Outcome Measures Sensitivity and specificity of the ROP diagnosis (zone, stage, plus disease, and category, i.e., no ROP, mild ROP, type 2 ROP, and ROP requiring treatment) were calculated using a consensus reference standard diagnosis, determined from the diagnosis of the color fundus photographs by 3 experienced readers in combination with the clinical diagnosis based on ophthalmoscopic examination. The κ statistic was used to analyze the average intergrader agreement among experts for the diagnosis of zone, stage, plus disease, and category. Results Addition of FA to color fundus photography resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity for diagnosis of stage 3 or worse disease (39.8% vs. 74.1%; P = 0.008), type 2 or worse ROP (69.4% vs. 86.8%; P = 0.013), and pre-plus or worse disease (50.5 vs. 62.6%; P = 0.031). There was a nonsignificant trend toward improved sensitivity for diagnosis of ROP requiring treatment (22.2% vs. 40.3%; P = 0.063). Using the κ statistic, addition of FA to color fundus photography significantly improved intergrader agreement for diagnosis of ROP requiring treatment. Addition of FA to color fundus photography did not affect intergrader agreement significantly for the diagnosis of stage, zone, or plus disease. Conclusions Compared with color fundus photography alone, FA may improve the sensitivity of diagnosis of ROP by experts, particularly for stage 3 disease. In addition, intergrader agreement for diagnosis of ROP requiring treatment may improve with FA interpretation.
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