A simian homologue of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the eighth human herpesvirus (HHV8), was isolated from a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) that developed a multicentric lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). This simian rhadinovirus is genetically similar to a recently described rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) (Desrosiers, R.C., V.G. Sasseville, S.C. Czajak, X. Zhang, K.G. Mansfield, A. Kaur, R.P. Johnson, A.A. Lackner, and J.U. Jung. 1997. J. Virol. 71:9764-9769) and is designated RRV 17577. RRV 17577 was experimentally inoculated into rhesus macaques with and without SIV(mac239) infection to determine if RRV played a role in development of the LPD observed in the index case. In contrast to control animals inoculated with SIV(mac239) or RRV alone, two animals coinfected with SIV(mac239) and RRV 17577 developed hyperplastic LPD resembling the multicentric plasma cell variant of Castleman's disease, characterized by persistent angiofollicular lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Hypergammaglobulinemia was associated with severe immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in one RRV/SIV-infected macaque. Both RRV/SIV-infected macaques exhibited persistent RRV viremia with little or no RRV-specific antibody response. The macaques inoculated with RRV alone displayed transient viremia followed by a vigorous anti-RRV antibody response and lacked evidence of LPD in peripheral blood and lymph nodes. Infectious RRV and RRV DNA were present in hyperplastic lymphoid tissues of the RRV/SIV-infected macaques, suggesting that lymphoid hyperplasia is associated with the high levels of replication. Thus, experimental RRV 17577 infection of SIV-infected rhesus macaques induces some of the hyperplastic B cell LPDs manifested in AIDS patients coinfected with KSHV.
- B cell hyperplasia
- Lymphoproliferative disorders
- Nonhuman primate
- Rhesus rhadinovirus
- Simian immunodeficiency virus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy