Patients with frequent GERD symptoms cost the healthcare system billions of dollars annually-significantly more than non-GERD patients. Medical therapy (PPI) and antireflux surgery are the two accepted treatment options for these patients. Patients who respond to PPI therapy, at least partially, and have objective evidence of GERD demonstrated on upper endoscopy or pH study have better outcomes after surgery than those who do not. The objective of this chapter is to review the indications for surgical treatment in patients with GERD.
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